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Up with our banner bright, 
Sprinkled ivith starry light, 
Spread its fair emblems from mountain to shore, 
IVhile throu'^h the sounding sky 
Loud rings the Nation s cry, — 

Union and Liberty! one efermore! 

Oliver Wendell Holmes 









The Liberty Bell 

^^^^-l -^ ^«olf. ace 



THE strong colors and the glorious beauty of the 
American flag express well the overwhelming fact of 
modern history — the evolution of the American Re- 
public. Wherever it may be, the flag is both attractive and 
assertive. In the home the colors do not clash with other 
colors. If they do not blend, neither do they repel. In the 
remotest distance the flag may be seen above every other 
object and distinguished from every other flag. The red and 
white stripes standing for the original states, and the silvery 
stars representing the Union, radiate and scintillate as far as 
the eye can reach. Far or near, the American flag is true 
and sure, brilliant and radiant, cordial and independent. 

It is a modern flag. There are no myths or legends, no 
ruins or heraldry, no armour or castles about it. It expresses 
the political independence of a plain people, the advance of a 
new nation, the self-conscious power, the confident aspirations, 
and the universal good will of popular government. 

What has been said of the flag has largely been inspired 
by war. Souls must be aflame to give out oratory and poetry. 
The flag has many times been at the battle front. The sight 
of it has inspired many a boy to do and die for his country. 
It was in the crucial campaign of the Revolution, that for the 
possession of New York, beginning at Fort Schuyler, continu- 
ing at Oriskany, and ending with the surrender of Burgoyne's 
entire army at Saratoga, that the flag was first given to the 
air in the face of an enemy. In this state it began to gather 
the deep love of a free people. That love has since grown 
deeper and yet deeper through the hail and flame, the heroisms 
and deaths, of an hundred battles. It is sad that war had to 
be, but for us there was no other way. Independence of 
Britain could not come by arbitration. The Union could not 
be saved by negotiation. Fighting is bad business, but there 
are times when it is better than submission. The strength 
and courage of a people are the guardians of their peace, 
of their freedom, and of their progress. The perils, the 
sufferings, and the heroisms of the country have made 
the literature of the flag. 



But the flag of the American Union, now as never before, 
tells of toleration and of good will, of education and of 
industry. It has welcomed millions from all nations of the 
world and has held out the equal chance to all who came 
under its folds. Every new star added to its blue field has 
told of a new state, and every new state tells of more farms 
cleared, more factories opened, more churches and schools set 
in motion, and more laws and courts to regulate them all 
and to assure the equal rights of every one. 

Out of the equal chance of freemen, out of the farms and 
forests and mines, out of the majestic rivers and charming 
valleys and lofty mountains, and out of the bracing air that is 
filled with sunshine, mighty public works and marvelous insti- 
tutions of culture have sprung. Railways and roadways, 
tunnels and aqueducts, newspapers and magazines, theaters 
and art galleries, cathedrals and universities, have grown. 
They are the products and the promoters of civilization and 
they give strength and stateliness to the flag. 

The American flag has looked down upon the writing of 
more constitutions and the making of more laws than any 
other flag in history. Some of this law-making has been 
crude, and perhaps some of it has been mistaken, but it has 
been both the necessary accompaniment and the stimulating 
cause of our wonderful national evolution. 

As man does so is he. All of these industrial, educational, 
religious, and political doings have produced a new nation of 
keen, alert, sinewy, and right-minded people who have power 
and know it. They have the traits of a young nation. But 
they are lacking neither in introspection, nor in imagination, 
nor in humor. More knowledge of other peoples than their 
fathers had and increasing responsibilities are sobering and 
steadying them. In their dealings with other peoples they 
intend to be just, frank, magnanimous. Their political phi- 
losophy is only the logical outworking of the Golden Rule. 
They have undoubting faith in democracy and would exem- 
plify it in ways to commend and extend it. 

The American flag expresses a glorious history, but it does 
not hark back to it overmuch. It looks forward more than 
backward. It calls upon us to do for this generation and to 
regard all the generations that will follow after. It knows 
that some time there will be five hundred or a thousand mil- 
lions of people in the United States instead of one hundred 

millions. It expects still greater public works and many more 
public conveniences. It sees better than any one of us does 
how hard it will be for such a self-governing people to hold 
what belongs to them in common, and to manage their great 
enterprises without frauds and for the good of all. 

The people of the United States are not only the pro- 
prietors of great natural possessions; they are inheritors of 
the natural rights of man, fought for by their ancestors in the 
mother country, granted in the great charters of English 
liberty, and established in the English common law. They 
have added to this what seemed worth taking from other 
systems of jurisprudence and from the manifold experiences of 
other lands; they have proved their capacity to administer their 
inheritance, and to their natural and political estates they 
have added the experiences of their own successful and notable 
national career. The flag not only adjures us to guard what we 
have in property and in law, but to train the children so that 
the men and women of the future may administer their inherit- 
ance better than we have ours or than our fathers did theirs. 

The flao; does more than emblazon a momentous and 
glorious history; it declares the purposes and heralds the 
ideals of the Republic; it admonishes us to uphold the inherent 
rights of all men; it tells us to stand for international justice 
and conciliation; and it encourages us to accept the conse- 
quences without fear. It hails us to individual duties and the 
cooperation which alone can maintain equality of rights and 
fulness of opportunity in America. It insists that we set a 
compelling example which will enlarge both security and free- 
dom, both peace and prosperity, in all parts of the world. 

A flag of glowing splendor calls to a nation of infinite 
possibilities. It calls upon the American people to conserve 
property, health, and morals; to preach the gospel of work 
and protect the accumulations of thrift; to open every kind of 
school to all manner of people; and to spare neither alertness 
nor force in keeping clean the springs of political action and 
in punishing venality in public life. That is the call of the 
radiant flag of the Union to the self-governing nation of the 
western world which is being compounded out of all the 
nations and is creating a new manner of civilization out of all 
the civilizations of the earth. 

Andrew S. Draper, 

Commissioner of Education. 

The Flag of Spain in 1492 
The Personal Banner of Columbus 



Courtesy of The Burrows Brothers Company, Publishers, 
Cleveland. Ohio 

From Avery's History of the United States 
ami Its People 

The Landing of Columbus 


THE first flags, according to authentic record, raised 
by white men in America were those which Christopher 
Columbus brought to the island of San Salvador, 
October 12, 1492. His son thus chronicles the ceremony of 
the landing: "Columbus, dressed in scarlet, first stepped on 
shore from the little boat which bore him from his vessels, 
bearing the royal standards of Spain, emblazoned with the 
arms of Castile and Leon, in his own hand, followed by the 
Pinzons, in their own boats, each bearing the banner of the 
expedition, which was a white flag, with a green cross, having 
on each side the letters F and Y, surmounted by golden crowns." 
The last named was the personal flag of the great sailor, the 
gift of Queen Isabella to him, the letter F standing for Ferdi- 
nand and Y for Ysabel. The first named, composed of four 
sections, two with yellow castles upon red and two with red 
lions upon white ground, was the flag of Spain in the time of 
Columbus and during most of the succeeding years of dis- 
covery and conquest. Illustrations of these flags are shown 
on the opposite page. 

The flag of England was first unfurled in North America 
by John Cabot, a Venetian, who landed, probably, on the 
coast of Newfoundland in 1497, w^ith letters patent from 
Henry VII of England, "to set up the royal banners and 
ensigns in the countries, places or mainland newly found by 
him," and "to conquer, occupy and possess the same." Under 
date of London, August 23, 1497, Lorenzo Pasqualigo writes 
to his brothers in Venice that "Cabot planted in his new- 


found land a large cross, with a flag of England and another 
of St Mark, by reason of his being a Venetian, so that our 
banner has floated very far afield." The Venetian ensign was 
of scarlet with a broad band of blue near the edge, perhaps 
typifying the sea, from which rose in gold the winged lion of 
St Mark, having in his right paw a cross. The flag of Eng- 
land used by Cabot and by other English navigators who 
followed him was probably the cross of St George, which is a 
white flag with a rectangular red cross extending its entire length 
and hight. In 1603 under James I, formerly James VI of 
Scotland, England and Scotland were united, and St George's 
cross was later joined with the cross of St Andrew of Scotland 
to form what was called the King's Colors. The cross of St 
Andrew is a blue flag with a diagonal white cross extending 
from corner to corner. The combination of the banners of 
England and Scotland formed, therefore, a blue flag wath a 
rectangular red cross and a diagonal white cross, the red 
showing entirely and the white being interrupted by it. Eng- 
land and Scotland retained their individual flags for many 
purposes, and it is probable that the Mayflower on that mem- 
orable journey in 1620 bore the cross of St George at her 
masthead, for she was an English ship. 

After King Charles I was beheaded in 1649, ^'"^^ partner- 
ship between England and Scotland was dissolved, and the 
national standard of England became again St George's cross. 
In 1660, when Charles II ascended the throne, the King's 
Colors again came into use. In 1707, when the complete 
union of the kingdom of Great Britain, including England, 
Scotland and Wales was established. Great Britain adopted 
for herself and her colonies a red ensign with the symbol of 
the union of England and Scotland in the canton. This 
"meteor flag of England," as it was sometimes called, con- 
tinued to be the national standard until 1801, when the cross 

of St Patrick, a red diagonal 
saltire on a w^hite ground, was 
united with the other crosses 
to mark the addition of Ire- 
land to the United Kingdom. 
This combination has formed 
the union in the flag of the 
kingdom of Great Britain 
Meteor Flag of England and Ireland down to the 


St George's Cross St Andrew's Cross 

The King's Colors 

Sx Patrick's Cross 

The British Union Jack 


present day. The complete development of the British flag 
is shown on the preceding page, the crosses of St George 
and St Andrew at the top with their combination in the 
King's Colors immediately beneath, followed by the cross 
of St Patrick and the present Union Jack of England. We 
are not concerned directly with the present British flag, how- 
ever, because our American flag was established earlier. 

Mention should be made of the flags of other nations that 
early came to our shores. Jacques Carrier was, perhaps, the 
first to bring the colors of France to the New World. Under 
royal commission he landed on May lo, 1534 at Cape Bona- 
vista, Newfoundland, and set up a cross at Gaspe a few weeks 
later. Upon a second voyage a year later he set up a cross 
and the arms of France near the site of the present city of 
Quebec. The French flag was probably blue at that time with 
three golden fleur-de-lis. Later the Huguenot party in France 
adopted the white flag. Over the forts and trading posts and 
in battle in the vast region of New France, stretching south- 
west from the St Lawrence to the Mississippi, it is probable 
that the Bourbon flag floated during the greater portion of the 
French occupancy. 

Henry Hudson brought the Half Moon into New York 
harbor in 1609 flying the flag of the Dutch East India Com- 
pany, which was that of the Dutch Republic — three equal 
horizontal stripes, orange, white and blue — with the letters 
V. O. C. A. (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie, Amsterdam) 
in the center of the white stripe. In 1621, when the Dutch 
West India Company came into control, the letters G. W. C. 
(Geoctroyeerde West-Indische Compagnie) took the place of 
the letters V. O. C. A. With the change of the orange to a 
red stripe between 1630 and 1650, the Dutch flag was in use 
until 1664, when the English flag was raised, which remained, 
save for the temporary Dutch resumption, 1673-74, until the 
Stars and Stripes was acknowledged. 

In 1638 a party of Swedish and Finnish colonists founded 
a settlement on the bank of the Delaware 
river, called New Sweden, under the Swed- 
ish national flag, a yellow cross on a blue 
ground. This settlement flourished until 
1655, when it was overpowered by the 

„, . u T^ u Dutch. 

Hag of the Dutch . . ... 

West India Company The Settlements in the thirteen original 


New England Colors, 

colonies were largely English, and the ceremonial flags 
of the English colonies very naturally took the form of 
the English national standard in its successive periods. The 
cross of St George was in use in the Massachusetts Bay 
Colony as early as 1634. In 1643 ^^^ colonies of Plymouth, 
Massachusetts Bay, Connecticut and New 
.Haven formed an alliance under the name 
of the United Colonies of New England 
and in 1686 adopted as a common flag 
the cross of St George with a gilt crown 
emblazoned on the center of the cross with 
the monogram of King James II under- 
neath. As early as 1700, however, the 
colonies began to depart from authorized 
English standards and to adopt flags show- 
ing a degree of independence and distinguishing their ships 
from those of England and from those of their neighbors. 
The pine tree flag of New England was a conspicuous one 
and came into use as early as 1704. In one form it was a 
red flag with the cross of St George in the canton with a 
green pine tree in the first quarter. It is thought that this 
flag may have been displayed at Bunker Hill. Another form 
of the pine tree flag was that having a white field with the 
motto "An Appeal to Heaven" above the pine tree. A very 

interesting banner, 
now in the possession 
of the Public Library 
of Bedford, Massa- 
chusetts, is said to be 
the oldest American 
flag in existence. It 
was carried by the 
minutemen of Bed- 
ford at the battle of 
Concord. The ground 
is maroon, emblazoned 
with an outstretched 
arm, the color of 
silver, in the hand of 
which is an uplifted 

Courtesy of The Burrows Brothers Company, Publishers, 1 npl ' 1 

.„ cweiand, Ohio sword. 1 hrcc circular 

From Avery s History of the United Stntes and Its People 

v^ ( .u -R A( i Af . figures, also in silver, 

rlag oi the liediord Minutemen o ' ' 


are said to represent cannon balls. Upon a gold scroll are the 
words "Vince aut Morire," meaning "Conquer or Die." 

The rattlesnake emblem was another favorite symbol in 
the colonies. It rivaled the pine tree in popularity and was 
shown in several designs. One form, that adopted by South 
Carolina, was a yellow flag with a rattlesnake in the middle 
about to strike, with the words "Don't Tread on Me" under- 
neath. Connecticut troops bore banners of solid color, a 
different color for each regiment, having on one side the 
motto "Qui Transtulit Sustinet" and on the other "An Appeal 
to Heaven." New York's flag was a white field with a black 
beaver in the center. Rhode Island's flag was white with a 
blue anchor with the word "Hope" above it, and a blue canton 
with thirteen white stars. Other flags bore the words "Liberty 
and Union," and "Liberty or Death." The earliest flag dis- 
played in the South was raised at Charleston, South Carolina, 
in the fall of 1775. It was a blue flag with a white crescent 
in the upper corner. Later, the word "Liberty" in white 
letters was added at the bottom of the flag. Some of these 
colonial flags are reproduced on the opposite page. 

These various forerunners of our national flag are insep- 
arably associated with its history, and yet they give us little 
or no clue to the origin of the Stars and Stripes. Our flag 
was an evolution. The design of stars and stripes was not 

original with us. As early as 1704 
the ships of the English East India 
Company bore flags with thirteen red 
and white stripes with the cross of 
St George in the canton. Still a cen- 
tury earlier, the national flag of the 
Netherlands consisted of three equal 
horizontal stripes. It is frequently 
suggested, though without tangible 
evidence, that the stars and stripes 
in Washington's coat of arms may 
have determined the original design of 
our flag. The celebrated standard 
of the Philadelphia Troop of Light 
Horse, the first known instance of the 
American use of stripes, was made 
in 1775. This flag is shown on page 
Its stripes may have in turn 

^ 1^ ^ 

Courtesy of The Burrows Brothers Company 

Ptiljlishers, Cleveland. Ohio 
From Avery's History of the United States 
and Its People 

Washington's Coat of Arnas 





Colonial Flags 


suggested the flag which Washington raised at Cambridge on 
January 2,-1776. This was the first distinctive American flag 
indicating a union of the colonies. It consisted of thirteen 
alternate red and white stripes with the combined crosses of 
St George and St Andrew in the canton. It was a peculiar 
flag, the thirteen stripes standing for the union of the col- 
onies and their revolt against the mother country, and the 
subjoined crosses representing the allegiance to her which was 
yet partially acknowledged. It was variously designated as the 
Union Flag, the Grand Union Flag and the Great Union 
Flag, and is now frequently referred to as the Cambridge 
Flag. A draiwing of this flag is shown at the top of the oppo- 
site page./ It marked the real beginning of our national exist- 
ence and continued to be the flag of the Revolution until 
the Continental Congress adopted the Stars and Stripes. 
*— We shall never know the whole story of the origin of our 
national flag. The oft-repeated claim that in June 1776 
Betsy Ross not only planned but made the first flag which 
was adopted a year later by Congress, is pleasant tradition, if 
not accurate history. The story runs that at that time a com- 
mittee of Congress, whether officially or self designated does 
not appear, consisting of George Washington, Robert Morris 
and Colonel George Ross, the latter, an uncle of John Ross, 
the husband of Betsy, she then being a young widow, called 
upon her at her upholstery shop on Arch street, Philadelphia, 
and asked if she could make a flag. She said she could try. 
Whereupon they produced a design roughly drawn of thirteen 
stripes and thirteen stars, the latter being six-pointed. She 
advised that the stars should be five-pointed, showing that a 
five-pointed star could be made with a single clip of the scissors. 
They agreed that this would be better, and General Washing- 
ton changed the design upon the spot and the committee left. 
Shortly afterward, the sketch thus made was copied and 
colored by a local artist and was sent to her, from which she 
made the sample flag that was approved by the committee. 
It is added that General Washington thought that the stars 
should be placed in a circle, thus signifying the equality of 
the states, none being the superior of another. The account 
rests almost entirely upon Mrs Ross's own statements made 
to members of her family and repeated by her descendants, a 
number of whom have made affidavits to the family under- 
standing of her communications. The story has been assailed 













• •'< 






The Cambridge Flag 
The First Stars and Stripes 


chiefly upon the grounds that it is unsupported contempo- 
raneously, that the flag was not immediately adopted and had 
no general use prior to June 14, 1777. Nevertheless, it is a 
pretty and fascinating story as it stands and has immense 
vogue. The Betsy Ross house, 239 Arch street, has been 
purchased and is cared for by the American Flag House and 
Betsy Ross Memorial Association, as the memorial to the 
reputed maker of the flag. 

The authentic history of our flag begins on June 14, 1777, 
when in pursuance of the report of a committee, the names of 
the members of which are unrecorded, but which John Adams 
has the credit of proposing, the American Congress adopted 
the following resolution : 

Resolved, That the flag ot the thirteen United States be thirteen stripes, 
alternate red and white; that the union be thirteen stars, white on a blue field, 
representing a new constellation. 

Whatever may have been the actual origin of this flag, the 
sentiment which it has conveyed for 133 years w^as appro- 
priately expressed by Washington in these words: "We take 
the star from Heaven, the red from our mother country, 
separating it by white stripes, thus showing that we have 
separated from her, and the white stripes shall go down to 
posterity representing liberty." 

There was considerable delay in the public announcement 
of the adoption of the flag, and the design was not officially 
promulgated by Congress until September 3, 1777. This first 
flag showed the arrangement of the stars in a circle (see bot- 
tom of page 19), but the arrangement was afterward changed 
to three horizontal lines of four, five and four stars. There 
are other claimants for the honor of first displaying the flag, 
but the evidence is quite conclusive that the event occurred in 
New York. The occasion was at Fort Stanwix, built in 1758 
and renamed Fort Schuyler in 1777, the site of the present city 
of Rome, New York. In anticipation of the descent of the 
British forces from the north, a garrison of some 500 or 600 
men had been placed in Fort Stanwix, under command of 
Colonel Peter Gansevoort, Jr, with Lieutenant-colonel Marinus 
Willett second in command. On the evening of the 2d of August 
the garrison was reinforced by about 200 men of the Ninth 
Massachusetts Regiment, led by Lieutenant-colonel Mellon, 
bringing the news of the recently enacted flag statute, and the 
making of the flag was determined upon. It was an improvised 


affair and the fort was ransacked for material of which it might 
be fashioned. It was made, according to the most trustworthy 
account, from a soldier's white shirt, a woman's red petticoat and 
a piece of blue cloth from the cloak of Captain Abraham Swart- 
wout, and raised on August 3, 1777 on the northeast bastion, the 
one nearest the camp of St Leger who had invested the fort. 
The drummer beat the assembly and the adjutant read the 
Congressional resolution ordaining the flag of the Republic, and 
up it went; there it swung, free and defiant, until the end of 

i^^'T 1 ^ v-^n^-i 

&.^..c g'^^ /f^^y 

/ I 



Abraham Swartwout's Letter to Peter Gansevoort 


the siege on the 22d of August. This account is confirmed by- 
Captain Swartwout's letter asking for cloth to replace that 
which was taken to make the flag. This letter is in the pos- 
session of Mrs Catherine Gansevoort Lansing of Albany, New 
York, a granddaughter of Colonel Gansevoort, and is repro- 
duced through her courtesy on the preceding page. 

The claim has been made that the Stars and Stripes was first 
raised in battle at Cooch's Bridge, near Wilmington, Delaware, 
on the 3d of September 1777. The claim is based upon the 
mere presumption that the American forces had a flag at Cooch's 
Bridge, and local Delaware historians assert that the Fort 
Stanwix flag was improvised and that the engagement was 
simply a skirmish or sally. The flag was made in a hurry, but 
it was regular and complete, and the three weeks' siege at Fort 
Stanwix was by no means a mere skirmish. The honor clearly 
belongs to New York. 

The flag with thirteen stars and thirteen stripes remained 
the national emblem until May i, 1795. Vermont had entered 
the Union March 4, 1791, and Kentucky, June i, 1792, and 
a change was thus necessitated in the flag. Not foreseeing the 
growth of the flag in the addition of both a star and a stripe 
for each new state. Congress passed the following act which 
was approved by President Washington on January 13, 1794: 

Be it enacted, etc., That from and after the first day of May, one thousand 
seven hundred and ninety-five, the flag of the United States be fifteen stripes, 
alternate red and white; and that the union be fifteen stars, white in a blue field. 

In this flag the stars were arranged in three parallel rows 
of five each, as shown at the top of the opposite page, with the 
blue field resting on the fifth red stripe. This was the national 
flag for twenty-three years. It was in use during the War of 
1 8 12, and in September 18 14, waving over Fort McHenry, it 
inspired Francis Scott Key to write the Star Spangled Banner. 
With the admission of new states it was very soon seen, how- 
ever, that the flag of fifteen stars and fifteen stripes, would not 
truly represent the Union, and that it would not be practicable 
to continue adding a stripe for each new state. Eleven months 
after the flag of 1795 was adopted, on June i, 1796, Tennessee 
was admitted into the Union ; and Ohio was admitted on Feb- 
ruary 19, 1803, Louisiana on April 30, 18 12, Indiana on 
December 11, 1816, and Mississippi on December 10, 1817. 
On December 9, 1816 Hon. Peter H. Wendover, a member of 
Congress from New York city, off^ered a resolution "that a 


The Flag of Fifteen Stars and Fifteen Stripes 
The Flag of Twenty Stars and Thirteen Stripes 


committee be appointed to inquire into the expediency of alter- 
ing the flag of the United States." As a result of this resolution 
an act was passed by Congress and on April 4, 18 18 approved 
by President Monroe, which fixed finally the general form of 
our flag. The act is as follows : 

An Act to Establish the Flag of the United States. 

Sec. I. Be it enacted, etc.. That from and after the fourth day of July 
next, the flag of the United States be thirteen horizontal stripes, alternate red 
and white; that the union have twenty stars, white in a blue field. 

Sec. 2. Be it further enacted. That on the admission of every new state 
into the Union, one star be added to the union ot the flag; and that such addition 
shall take eff"ect on the fourth of July next succeeding such admission. 

There was considerable debate in the House upon the bill, 
and to Mr Wendover belongs the credit of pressing it to final 
passage. The suggestion for the form of the flag, however, 
namely, that the original thirteen stripes should be restored 
and that a star should be added for each new state, came 
from Captain Samuel C. Reid of the United States navy. Leg- 
islation has never provided the exact arrangement the stars 
should take in the canton of the flag. Following the last 
mentioned enactment of Congress, the first flag with thirteen 
stripes and twenty stars was hoisted on the flagstaff" of the 
House of Representatives on April 13, 18 18. Upon the sug- 
gestion of Captain Reid the stars were arranged to form one 
great star in the center of the union, as shown at the bottom of 
the preceding page. This design did not gain favor and the 
stars were soon thereafter arranged in rows. There was much 
confusion for many years and a great many diff"erent arrange- 
ments of the stars were displayed. Since the flag with twenty 
stars was established, a new star has been added on the fourth 
of July following the admission into the Union of each of the 
following- states : 

Illinois, December 3, 18 18. Kansas, January 29, 1861. 

Alabama, December 14, i8ig. West Virginia, June 19, 1863. 

Maine, March 15, 1820. Nevada, October 31, 1864. 

Missouri, August 10, 1821. Nebraska, March I, 1867. 

Arkansas, June 15, 1836. Colorado, August i, 1876. 

Michigan, January 26, 1837. North Dakota, November 2, 1889. 

Florida, March 3, 1845. South Dakota, November 2, 1889. 

Texas, December 29, 1845. Montana, November 8, 1889. 

Iowa, December 28, 1846. Washington, November li, 1889. 

Wisconsin, May 29, 1848. Idaho, July 3, 1890. 

California, September 9, 1850. Wyoming, July 11, 1890. 

Minnesota, May 11, 1858. Utah, January 4, 1896. 

Oregon, February 14, 1859. Oklahoma, November 16, 1907. 


The early confusion about the arrangement of the stars 
has largely disappeared. In the absence of direct legislation, 
an agreement has been arrived at between the War and Navy 
Departments on the subject. Since July 4, 1908, following 
the admission of Oklahoma in 1907, the arrangement of the 
stars in the flags of the army and ensigns of the navy has 
been in six horizontal rows, the first, third, fourth and sixth 
rows having eight stars, and the second and fiith rows having 
seven. The present grouping of the stars is shown in the flag 
on the frontispiece. 

Harlan Hoyt Horner 


From ancient lands across the sea 

Here came our fathers to be free; 

They felled the forest, plowed the field 

And won the wealth the waters yield; 

In mine and shop they delved and wrought, 

And bravely for their freedom fought; 

They feared the Lord, naught else they feared, 

As they a mighty nation reared. 

From Canada to Mexico 

One land, one law, one flag we know; 

And far beyond the western seas 

Old Glory floats in pledge of peace; 

While North and South and East and West, 

Above our best deserving blest. 

In gratitude, as still we must. 

We raise the hymn, In God We Trust. 

Joseph B. Gilder 

Copyright, igog, hy the author 


HIGHLY as the citizens of New York value her posi- 
tion, possessions, history and fame, they acknowledge 
superior allegiance to the Union and its flag; but 
they take pride, justly, in the events of national importance 
that have occurred on her soil, in her sons who have distin- 
guished themselves in national afi^airs, and in the faithful and 
consistent service she has rendered the Republic. 

New York adopted a constitution April 20, and George 
Clinton became the first governor of the State, July 9, 1777. 
At Fort Stanwix, August 3, the Stars and Stripes was first 
raised in the face of the enemy; three days afterward the 
bloody battle of Oriskany was fought; and, on October 17, 
Burgoyne surrendered to the flag at Saratoga at the culmina- 
tion of the battle which was the decisive conflict of the Revo- 
lution. The Legislature of New York accepted, February 6, 
1778, the Articles of Confederation adopted by Congress. 
"Mad" Anthony Wayne accomplished one of the most brilliant 
exploits of the war at Stony Point, July 16, 1779, and, later in 
the same year, General John Sullivan swept with the flag 
through the country of the Iroquois, burning their villages, 
slaying their warriors, and efi^ectually ending their alliance with 
the British crown. It was on the Hudson in September 1780 
that, through the treason of Arnold, the flag would have trailed 
in the dust and American freedom, perhaps, have been lost, 
save for the New York men who were the captors of Andre. 
In October 1781 Colonel Marinus Willett gained a victory over 
the tories and red men at Johnstown. When the enemy was 
broken and paralyzed in New York the operations of the war 
were mainly confined to the South ; but it was reserved for New 
York, on the 25th of November 1783, to witness the evacuation 
of the land by British troops and the Stars and Stripes run up 
in the city as the royal ensign was hauled down. The federal 
Constitution was ratified at Poughkeepsie, July 26, 1788; New 
York became in 1784 the seat of the federal government and so 
remained until 1790; and in the city on the 30th of April 1789, 
George Washington from the balcony of Federal Hall took the 
oath of office under the flag as President of the United States. 


In the War of 1812, owing largely to her Canadian bound- 
ary, New York conspicuously encountered the hazards and 
helped in the triumphs of the flag. Her northern border was 
fighting ground, on which her militia bore the brunt of battle. 
Sacketts Harbor, Lundy's Lane and Plattsburg testified to the 
valor of her yeomen and her troops; McDonough's destruction 
of the British fleet made the waters of Champlain forever 
glorious. Large amounts were raised for coast defense and 
the fitting out of privateers which swarmed the Atlantic; and 
the state endorsed United States treasury notes, expended in 
recruiting and manufacturing arms. 

In the Civil War, New York, then far in advance of any 
other commonwealth in men and means, was thus enabled 
also to be the most prominent and eff'ective in the preserva- 
tion of the Union and the supremacy of the Stars and Stripes. 
She sent into the field 448,850 men for periods ranging from 
three months to three years and was credited with 18,197 who 
paid commutation, or a total of 467,047, over one-sixth of the 
Union army. Many of her volunteer oflRcers attained dis- 
tinction and her regiments were among the best in the service. 
She expended in bounties $86,629,228 — an unparalleled munifi- 
cence — as proof of her patriotism. 

The leading place of New York in the national government 
is well shown in the names of her sons who have had distin- 
guished service therein. New York has given to the Union 
some of its most illustrious servants; and, especially should be 
named Alexander Hamilton, the greatest American construc- 
tive statesman; Philip Schuyler, among the greatest of Ameri- 
can soldiers; John Jay, jurist and statesman; and William H. 
Seward, foremost among diplomatists. She has had as presi- 
dents, Martin Van Buren, Millard Fillmore, Chester A. Arthur, 
Grover Cleveland and Theodore Roosevelt. The following 
have been vice-presidents : Aaron Burr, George Clinton, 
Daniel D. Tompkins, Martin Van Buren, Millard Fillmore, 
William A. Wheeler, Chester A. Arthur, Levi P. Morton, 
Theodore Roosevelt and James S. Sherman. She has been 
represented in the Cabinet by Martin Van Buren, William L. 
Marcy, William H. Seward, Hamilton Fish, William M. Evarts, 
Elihu Root and Robert Bacon as secretaries of state; by 
Alexander Hamilton, John C. Spencer, John A. Dix, Charles 
J. Folger, Daniel Manning, Charles S. Fairchild and George 
B. Cortelyou as secretaries of the treasury; by John Armstrong, 


John Jay 

Philip Schuyler 

, . . 


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Alexander Hamilton 

William H. Seward 


Peter B. Porter, Benjamin F. Butler, John C. Spencer, William 
L. Marcy, John M. Schofield, Daniel S. Lamont and Elihu 
Root as secretaries of war; by Smith Thompson, James K. 
Paulding, William C. Whitney and Benjamin F. Tracy as 
secretaries of the navy; by Benjamin F. Butler, William M. 
Evarts, Edwards Pierrepont and George W. Wickersham as 
attorneys-general; by Francis Granger, Nathan K. Hall, 
Thomas L. James, Wilson S. Bissell and George B. Cortelyou 
as postmasters-general; by Cornelius N. Bliss as secretary of 
the interior; and by George B. Cortelyou as secretary of com- 
merce and labor. 

John Jay (chief-justice), Brockholst Livingston, Smith 
Thompson, Samuel Nelson, Ward Hunt, Samuel Blatchford 
and Rufus W. Peckham have been among the justices of the 
Supreme Court of the United States. In important diplomatic 
positions have been John M. Francis, Frederick D. Grant and 
Charles S. Francis as ministers to Austria; Gouverneur Morris, 
Robert R. Livingston, John Armstrong, John Bigelow, John 
A. Dix, Levi P. Morton, Whitelaw Reid, Horace Porter and 
Robert Bacon as ministers or ambassadors to France; Daniel 
D. Barnard, George Bancroft, |. C. B. Davis, Andrew D. 
White and David J. Hill as ministers or ambassadors to Ger- 
many; John Jay, Rufus King, George Bancroft, Edwards 
Pierrepont, Joseph H. Choate and Whitelaw Reid as ministers or 
ambassadors to Great Britain; Churchill C. Cambreling, Allen 
T. Rice and Andrew D. White as ministers to Russia ; and Wash- 
ington Irving, Daniel E. Sickles, Perry Belmont and Stewart L. 
Woodford as ministers to Spain. Throughout, New York 
has been most ably represented in both houses of Congress. 

In 1789, when the Constitution of the United States was 
adopted. New York was the fifth state in population and 
resources, being out-classed by Virginia, Pennsylvania, North 
Carolina and Massachusetts. Thence she forged rapidly to 
the front, attaining in 1820 first rank in population, wealth, 
manufactures, commerce and education. She was rightfully 
styled the Empire State, and has since so remained, advancing 
by great leaps and bounds. A few statistics will show her 
primacy. Her population in 1905 was 8,067,308. Her popu- 
lation in her large cities, New York, Buffalo, Rochester, Syra- 
cuse and Albany, is now nearly 6,000,000. New York is the 
second city in population in the world and will soon be the 
first in that regard, London exceeding her by only 522,237, and 


Paris, the third, having over 2,000,000 less number of inhabit- 
ants. The world's financial center is also moving from Lon- 
don to New York. The imports at the port of New York 
were in 1909 valued at ^779,308,944 and the exports at ^607,- 
239,481. New York entered 12,528,723 and exported 11,- 
866,415 tons of goods, exceeding London by millions in both 
respects. The state paid ^28,637,349.37 of internal revenue 
taxes to the general government, being over one-eighth of the 
whole amount received. The total amount expended in the 
state for education (1908-9) was ^76,696,217.48. Of this 
amount $5,863,281.36 was paid by the state, $50,496,070.52 
was raised by tax or otherwise locally, and $20,336,865.60 was 
contributed by individuals or institutions. The amount of 
deposits in the savings banks of the state was (1909) $1,405,- 
799, 067.62, with an average of $509.28 for each depositor, the 
amount nearest to this being that of Massachusetts — $728,- 
224,417.52. The total assessed valuation of real and personal 
property in the state, estimated at 86§ per cent of its real 
value, was $9,666,118,689. These figures are bewildering, but 
they are the most practical expression of the supremacy of New 
York in the Union, and the immense stake she has in its integ- 
rity and welfare and of her ability to protect and exalt the flag. 
She will be true to it in the coming years, as she has been from 
the hour when it was raised at Fort Stanwix. 

Courtesy of Tlie Burrows Brothers Coiupany, 
Publishers, Cleveland, Ohio 

From Avery's History of the United 
States ami its People 

Colonel Peter Gansevoort's Third New York Regiment Flag 
(Made in 1778 or 1779 and carried at the siege of Yorktown) 



The Seal of the United States 



THE Stars and Stripes has always been a conquer- 
ing emblem. It waves today over a magnificent 
domain, 3,686,780 square miles, including insular 
dependencies, and floats to the winds of every zone north 
of the tropic of Capricorn. The following table shows the 
various divisions of this domain: 

Name Area, Square Miles 

Continental United States, . 2,970,230 (land surface only) 

■ Alaska, 590,884 (land and water) 

Hawaii, 6,449 

Philippine Islands, .... 115,026 

Porto Rico, 3,435 

Guam, 201 

Tutuila (Samoa), 81 

Panama Canal Zone 1904, . 474 

It is a domain touching approximately the i8th degree 
south and the Jid north latitude, and the 67th degree west 
and the iizd east longitude, embracing every variety of soil, 
scenery and production, with lofty mountain ranges, indented 
sea-coasts, long and serviceable rivers, and multitudinous 
mineral deposits. 

This domain has been acquired by the release of the 
colonies from the yoke of Great Britain, with the consequent 
cessions from the mother country and from the states; by 
war; by purchase; and by voluntary annexation. When the 
United States became a nation, it included the original thirteen 
states, with the additional area surrendered by Great Britain, 
the whole being bounded on the west by the Mississippi river, 
on the south by the 31st parallel of latitude — the north line of 
Florida — on the east by the Atlantic ocean, and on the north 
by the British dominions. Within this area was the tract 
known as the Northwest Territory, in which several states — 
New York, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, Connecticut and 
Virginia — held claims and which, by the memorable ordinance 
of 1787, was forever dedicated to freedom. The states soon 
relinquished their rights therein to the general government and 
from it have been carved Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, 
Wisconsin, the eastern part (a small section) of Minnesota, 


and the northwest corner of Pennsylvania. In the territory 
south of the Ohio river, Kentucky was taken from Virginia. 
To the remainder thereof, North CaroHna, South Carohna 
and Georgia preferred claims, but also adjusted them with 
the general government and therein Tennessee, Alabama and 
Mississippi were erected. In 1803 Louisiana, now compris- 
ing Louisiana, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Missouri, Kansas (except 
as derived from Texas), Nebraska, Iowa, Minnesota (west of 
the Mississippi), North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, a 
portion of Colorado and nearly all of Wyoming — nearly 1,000,- 
000 square miles — was purchased from France. In 18 19 
Florida was bought from Spain for ^^5,000,000 which included 
full extinction of the claims against her of certain American 
citizens. Texas, an independent state, was annexed in 184^5, 
a portion of her area being subsequently sold to the United 
States and now included in Kansas, Colorado and New Mexico. 
By the cession from Mexico in 1848, as a result of the war with 
that country, a vast region, since famous for and enormously 
profitable in its yield of mineral treasures and now resolved 
into California, Nevada, Utah, a large portion of Colorado, 
the lower part of Arizona, and a considerable part of New 
Mexico, was obtained. In 1853 the Gadsden purchase of the 
lower portions of Arizona and New Mexico was made from 
Mexico. In 1846 Oregon, including the present states of 
Oregon, Washington and Idaho, whose northern boundary, 
lonor in dispute with Great Britain but then adjusted, became 
incontestably an American possession. There were thirteen 
original states; thirty-three have since been admitted and the 
two territories. New Mexico and Arizona, soon will be. 

Seven times has the Stars and Stripes flown triumphant in 
\var — six times against a foreign and once against a domestic foe. 
Each conflict has upheld the national honor and twice it has 
enlarged the national domain. In chronological order (omit- 
ting conflicts with Indian tribes) wars have occurred as follows: 
I. With Great Britain — 1775-83 — by which independence 
was won and the Republic assured. 
II. With France — 1 798-1 800 — by which French insults and 
outrages were avenged. War was not formally 
declared, but conflicts occurred on the ocean. 
III. With Tripoli — 1801-5 — by which the capture of 
American ships, the sale of their crews as slaves and 
payments for their release, were amply punished. 


IV. With Great Britain — 1812-15 — because of British claims 
to search American ships and impress seamen there- 
from. The war lasted three years, and, although 
by it the United States acquired no territory and 
American grievances were not in terms settled by 
the treaty, there was no further disposition by Great 
Britain to affront the American flap;. 
V. With Mexico — 1846-48 — by which in return for 
^15,000,000 and the assumption by the United 
States of the claims of American citizens against 
Mexico, that country ceded to it the territory 
already described. 

VI. With the Confederate States — 1861-65. The differences 
between the Northern and Southern states were 
settled and the Stars and Stripes waved again over 
a united people. 


Colors of Ninth U. S. Infantry 
(In camp at Tampa, Fla. during Spanish War) 

With Spain — 1898 — by which Spain was expelled 
from the western world and large accessions were 
made to American territory — the Philippine Islands, 
Porto Rico, etc. 


By means other than war the United States acquired 
Louisiana from France in 1803, Florida from Spain in 18 19, 
and Alaska from Russia in 1867, by purchase; Hawaii by its 
own appHcation in 1898 ; Tutuila, a Samoan island, by arrange- 
ment with Great Britain and Germany in 1899; and some 
small outlying Philippine islands in 1901. Sufficient has been 
said concerning Louisiana and Florida. In 1867 Alaska 
with its outlying islands was purchased from Russia for $j,20Ci,- 
000, mainly through the efforts of William H. Seward, secre- 
tary of state. His estimate of the value, politically and com- 
mercially, of a region commonly assumed to consist only of 
treacherous bogs, glacial wastes and frozen streams, was 
regarded as a wild and fantastic dream. But Secretary Seward 
was enthusiastic in its behalf, pressed the measure and esteemed 
its adoption the crowning laurel of his long and distinguished 
public career. It may fairly be said that his expectations have 
been far more than realized and that the buying of Alaska has 
turned out to be one of the best bargains that one country 
ever made with another. Sweeping north far within the Arctic 
circle, its area is equal to that of one-fifth of all the states and 
organized territories of the Union, and, although there are 
extensive tracts uninhabitable, desolate and sterile, and dark- 
ness settles as a pall upon a portion of it through half the year, 
it is very rich in forests, fisheries, fur-bearing animals, and in 
precious metals is a real El Dorado. For the past decade, a 
copious stream of gold has issued from Alaska, the production 
for 1908 alone being $19,858,800. Even the climate of much 
of the country, modified as it is by the tepid current of the Kuro- 
Siwo (the Japanese Gulf Stream) is an agreeable one. The 
isothermal line of Sitka — 57 degrees north latitude — corre- 
sponds with that of Philadelphia — 40 degrees. 

Negotiations for the annexation of Hawaii (the Sandwich 
islands), intimate relations with which had been established by 
American missionaries, merchants and residents, began as 
early as 1854, but were ended by the sudden death of 
the king. In 1876 a reciprocity treaty was made with 
Hawaii and continued many years. American influence be- 
came paramount. In 1893 a revolution occurred which 
humbled the monarchy and ended in another application for 
admission to the Union. Unacted upon by the Harrison ad- 
ministration, it was opposed by that of Cleveland, but approved 
by that of McKinley, the islands being given a territorial gov- 


ernment and consti- 
tuted a customs dis- 
trict in 1897. Their 
importance, steadily 
increasing, need not 
be stated in detail. 
Midway between the 
Golden Gate and the 
Manila outpost, they 
sentinel our ships, 
provide coaling sta- 
tions, augment our 
commerce, and compel 
respect for our flag in 
the Pacific. 

By a treaty ratified 
with the Republic of 
Panama, over which it 
holds a protectorate, 
the United States on 
the 15th of February 
1904 became the owner 
of a strip of land 
known as the Canal 
Zone, five miles in 
width on either side of the canal now being built by our gov- 
ernment to connect the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. It is a 
stupendous undertaking, shortening the water route from New 
York to San Francisco by 8,400 miles, upon which over 
40,000 men are now engaged and will cost about $500,000,- 
000, ;$2 10,070,468 having been appropriated for it up to June 
30, 1910. It is expected to be finished in 1915. Its com- 
mercial, national and international benefits are beyond com- 
putation. It is the latest and in many respects the grandest 
expansion of the dominion of the Stars and Stripes. 

One more triumph of the flag is to be noted. It has not, 
indeed, enlarged its domain, but has signally exalted its pres- 
tige. After numerous expeditions by the explorers of various 
nations in search of the North Pole through 400 years, attended 
with much of pluck, adventure, sufl^ering and death, and uni- 
formly with disappointment, Robert E. Peary, a commander 
of the United States navy, at last, on the 6th of April 1909 

President McKinley and Admiral Dewey 

(At the ceremonies in front of the Capitol at Washington 

on October 3, 1899 when the President presented to 

the Admiral the sword voted by Congress) 


reached the pole and fixed the Stars and Stripes in its icy 
crest. The goal so long and so vainly striven for was attained 
and by an American. 

Although the close of the Spanish War is usually said to be 
the time when the United States became a world power, 
so called, such rank actually dates back to the Monroe Doc- 
trine, declared in 1823, and since maintained inflexibly, as 
Maximilian found to his undoing. It holds that European 
powers shall not be permitted to extend their systems to any 
part of the western hemisphere. And now the Stars and Stripes 
announces unmistakably that this nation is in the affairs of 
the world to stay. 

The Stars and Stripes floated over a population of 84,907,- 
156 according to the federal census of 1900, distributed as 
follows : 

United States, proper, 75,994,575 

Alaska, 63,592 

Hawaii, 154,001 

Philippines, 7,635,426 

Porto Rico, 953>243 

Guam, 9,000 

Samoa, 6,100 

Persons in military service outside continental 

United States, 91,219 

Total, 84,907,156 

By estimates made by the governors of the states and 
territories for the year 1909 the population thereof was 89,770,- 
126; and, with the island dependencies it seems probable 
that the entire population will reach 100,000,000 by the census 
of 1910. Only three countries, China, Great Britain and 
Russia, have a larger population than the United States. It 
is a population embracing all races and colors. In continental 
United States each of the four main races of the world is rep- 
resented in percentages as follows: white, or Caucasian, 87.9; 
negro, or African, 11.6; red, or Indian, 0.3; and yellow, or 
Mongolian, 0.2. Alaska is mainly Mongolian; the Philip- 
pines, substantially Malayans; Porto Rico, nearly all African. 
The invitation to immigration has been generous, with liberal 
naturalization provisions, and the response prompt and ample. 
The Stars and Stripes has welcomed all settlers here, those 
wishing to better their conditions by larger reward for their 
labor, or those fleeing from the oppressions of the Old World, 


all but the Mongolians, who do not seem to be wanted here 
and whose number the law restricts. For many years Ger- 
mans, Irish and Scandinavians formed the bulk ot immigrants; 
but of late the larger proportion has been Russian and Italian. 
From 1822 until 1910 the immigrants into the United States 
aggregated 26,852,723. 691,901 arrived from Europe during 
1908, Russia furnishing 156,71 1, and Italy, 123,503 ; and 40,524 
came from Asia. Of the entire population in 1900, 34.3 per 
cent was w^holly or partially of foreign parentage. Thus far, 
while there have been some vexatious questions to consider in 
reference to the character of a small portion of immigrants, 
there has been no serious dijfficulty in assimilating the foreign 
element with American citizenship. It has dug our canals, 
built our railroads, cultivated our fields, driven our looms, 
helped to fight our battles, in no small degree participated in 
our politics, and has loyally accepted the dominion of our flag. 

The Anglo-Saxon is still the prevailing strain in American 
nationality — in just what proportion it w^ere too subtle an 
analysis to determine, for there has been a constant commin- 
gling of stocks. But the Anglo-Saxon — the Puritan of New 
England and the Cavalier of Virginia — has been at the head of 
the procession as it has explored and settled the continent 
through 300 years, and still is in command. 

It were a long story, impossible to tell in our allotted 
space, of the dominion of the flag in governmental expression; 
in enlightened institutions; in the written American constitu- 
tions; in the sovereignty both of the separate states and the 
Union, "distinct like , the billows yet one like the sea"; in 
wealth, in manufactures, in inventions, in science and in 
popular education, dazzling in their array. Their mere men- 
tion must here suffice. There is no reason to doubt that the 
dominion of the flag, which has been so powerful and so 
glorious in the past, will be equal to the call of the future, for 
the flag with all its triumphs in territorial settlement and 
expansion, in increasing population, in war and in peace, in 
all the arts of civilization, has its crowning triumph in the 
faith and love of the people. 

Charles Elliott Fitch 


102° Longitude < 

Ceded by S 

Courtesy of G, & C. Merriam Company, Publishers, Springfield, Mass 

fi-om 92° Greenwich 




HAWAII, ^ 60 10 m 
Annexed 1898 Scale 

From Webster's New International Dictionary of the Enjjlish Lanijuage 


Education Law, Article 27 

Sec. 710. Purchase and display of -flag. It shall be the 
duty of the school authorities of every public school in the 
several cities and school districts of the state to purchase a 
United States flag, flag-stafi^ and the necessary appliances 
therefor, and to display such flag upon or near the public 
school building during school hours, and at such other times 
as such school authorities may direct. 

Sec. 711. Rules atid regulations. The said school authori- 
ties shall establish rules and regulations for the proper custody, 
care, and display of the flag, and when the weather will not 
permit it to be otherwise displayed, it shall be placed con- 
spicuously in the principal room in the schoolhouse. 

Sec. 712. Commissioner of education shall prepare pro- 
gram. I. It shall be the duty of the commissioner of educa- 
tion to prepare, for the use of the public schools of the state, 
a program providing for a salute to the flag and such other 
patriotic exercises as may be deemed by him to be expedient, 
under such regulations and instructions as may best meet the 
varied requirements of the diflerent grades in such schools. 

2. It shall also be his duty to make special provision for 
the observance in the public schools of Lincoln's birthday, 
Washington's birthday. Memorial day and Flag day, and such 
other legal holidays of like character as may be hereafter desig- 
nated by law when the legislature makes an appropriation 

Sec. 713. Military drill excluded. Nothing herein con- 
tained shall be construed to authorize military instruction or 
drill in the public schools during school hours. 

Penal Law, Article 134 
Sec 1425. 16. Any person, who in any manner, for 
exhibition or display, shall place or cause to be placed, any 
word, figure, mark, picture, design, drawing, or any adver- 
tisement, of any nature upon any flag, standard, color or 
ensign of the United States of America or state flag of this 


state or ensign, shall expose or cause to be exposed to public 
view any such flag, standard, color or ensign, upon which 
after the first day of September, nineteen hundred and five, 
shall have been printed, painted or otherwise placed, or to 
which shall be attached, appended, affixed, or annexed, any 
word, figure, mark, picture, design, or drawing, or any adver- 
tisement of any nature, or who shall expose to public view, 
manufacture, sell, expose for sale, give away, or have in pos- 
session for sale, or to give away, or for use for any purpose, 
any article, or substance, being an article of merchandise, or 
a receptacle of merchandise or article or thing for carrying or 
transporting merchandise, upon which after the first day of 
September, nineteen hundred and five, shall have been printed, 
painted, attached, or otherwise placed, a representation of any 
such flag, standard, color or ensign, to advertise, call attention 
to, decorate, mark, or distinguish, the article or substance, on 
which so placed, or who shall publicly mutilate, deface, defile, 
or defy, trample upon, or cast contempt, either by words or 
act, upon any such flag, standard, color or ensign, shall be 
deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and shall be punished by a 
fine not exceeding one hundred dollars or by imprisonment 
for not more than thirty days, or both, in the discretion of the 
court; and shall also forfeit a penalty of fifty dollars for each 
such off"ense, to be recovered with costs in a civil action, or 
suit, in any court having jurisdiction, and such action or suit 
may be brought by or in the name of any citizen of this State, 
and such penalty when collected less the reasonable cost and 
expense of action or suit and recovery to be certified by the 
district attorney of the county in which the off"ense is com- 
mitted shall be paid into the treasury of this State; and two 
or more penalties may be sued for and recovered in the same 
action or suit. The words, flag, standard, color or ensign, as 
used in this subdivision or section, shall include any flag, 
standard, color, ensign, or any picture or representation, of 
either thereof, made of any substance, or represented on any 
substance, and of any size, evidently purporting to be, either 
of, said flag, standard, color or ensign, of the United States of 
America, or a picture or a representation, of either thereof, upon 
which shall be shown the colors, the stars, and the stripes, in 
any number of either thereof, or by which the person seeing 
the same, without deliberation may believe the same to repre- 
sent the flag, colors, standard, or ensign of the United States 


of America. The possession by any person, other than a 
pubhc officer, as such, of any such flag, standard, color or 
ensign, on which shall be anything made unlawful at any 
time by this section, or of any article or substance or thing on 
which shall be anything made unlawful at any time by this 
section shall be presumptive evidence that the same is in 
violation of this section, and was made, done or created 
after the first day of September, nineteen hundred and 
five, and that such flag, standard, color, ensign, or article, 
substance, or thing, did not exist on the first day of 
September, nineteen hundred and five. 

Military Law, Article i 

Sec. 19. Bureau of records of the war of the rebellion; 
completion and preservation of the records and relics; free 
inspection of the same and quarters in the capifol. I. The 
adjutant-general of the state shall establish and maintain as 
part of his office, a bureau of records of the war of the rebellion, 
in which all records in his office relating to such war, and 
relics shall be kept. He shall be the custodian of all such 
records, relics, colors, standards and battle flags of New York 
volunteers now the property of the state or in its possession, 
or which the state may hereafter acquire or become possessed 
of, and he shall appoint a chief of this bureau who shall hold 
office under his direction for six years. 

2. The adjutant-general of the state by all reasonable 
ways and means, shall complete such records and gather from 
every available source such colors, standards and battle flags 
as were borne by New York State troops in the war of the 
rebellion, and such statistics and historical information and 
relics as may serve to perpetuate the memory and heroic deeds 
of the soldiers of the state, and keep and carefully preserve 
the same in such bureau. 

3. He is authorized to request and accept from incor- 
porated associations of veterans of the different regiments, 
statements and information duly authenticated by them, 
descriptive of their colors, standards and battle flags, together 
with the number and class of arms of the regiment, the date 
and place of muster into the service of the state and also into 
the service of the United States, the period of service, and the 
date and place of muster out, the date of departure for the 
seat of war, the various battles and engagements and places 


of service, including garrison duty, the time of joining brigades, 
corps and armies, with the time and nature of the service, and 
the names of colonels of such regiments, the names of those 
killed in action, including those who died of wounds, and the 
names of those who died of disease during their period of serv- 
ice. He is further authorized to ask the co-operation and 
assistance of the adjutant-general of the United States, and of 

Battle Flags of New York Regiments 

(Sixteen cases of these flags are exhibited in the Capitol at Albany. The cards attached 
to the flags give the names and engagements of the regiments) 


the city, county and town authorities and officials, and of the 
Grand Army of the Repubhc, the Mihtary Order of the Loyal 
Legion, and of organizations and persons in the State of New 
^ ork and elsewhere in the collection of such other informa- 
tion, relics, memorials and battle flags as is contemplated by 
this article, in order to make as complete as possible the 
records, history and statistics of the patriotic service of the 
volunteer soldiers of the state during the war of the rebellion. 

4. The adjutant-general of the state is directed to cause 
to be transcribed and kept in books of record in such bureau 
the historical facts, information and statistics as provided 
above; and is authorized to determine a convenient size for 
the volumes in which such statistics and historical data may 
be bound, and to request veteran associations and others pro- 
posing to supply such historical data and information to furnish 
the same on printed or manuscript sheets of a uniform size to 
correspond with the size of such volumes. 

5. He is further authorized to provide locked and sealed 
cases with glass fronts, as nearly air-tight as practicable, in 
which shall be kept and displayed the colors, standards and 
battle flags above mentioned, and receive placards in duplicate, 
which incorporated regimental veteran associations are privi- 
leged and empowered to furnish and upon which shall be 
inscribed synopses of the historical information and statistics 
herein provided to be furnished to such bureau by regimental 
veteran associations, or failing to receive such data and informa- 
tion from such veteran associations, for the preparation of such 
placards, he may utilize the authentic information which he 
may obtain from other sources, as herein provided, which 
placards shall be uniform in size and color and shall be attached 
to or conspicuously placed in proximity to the colors, standards 
and battle flags to which they refer. If any placard or inscrip- 
tion shall be lost, destroyed or removed, the adjutant-general 
of the state shall at once replace it by duplicate of the original 
on file. 

The legislature shall annually make suitable appropriations 
to enable the adjutant-general of the state to carry out the 
provisions of this section. 

6. The books, records and other property and relics 
deposited in such bureau shall be open to inspection and use, 
except the use of the colors, standards and battle flags, at 
such reasonable hours and under such regulations as the 


adjutant-general of the state may determine. No battle flag, 
book or any property placed in such bureau for the purpose 
of this article, shall be removed therefrom, or from the imme- 
diate custody and control of the adjutant-general of the state 
without an act of the legislature. 

7. The trustees of the capitol are authorized and directed 
to provide suitable and convenient quarters for the bureau of 
records whenever the adjutant-general of the state shall require 

National and State Flags Flying F'rom the Capitol 

and make demand therefor, and to properly fit up and prepare 
the same for the safe-keeping of such records, books and 
property, and for the display of such colors, standards, battle 
flags and relics which shall be known and maintained as the 
hall of military records. The several municipalities of the 
state may deposit their record books and papers relating to 
the war in the archives of the hall for safe-keeping, and trans- 


cripts therefrom shall be furnished on appHcation by the chief 
officer ot the municipahty without cost to it. Officers or 
soldiers may deposit therein their discharge papers, descriptive 
lists, muster rolls or company or regimental books and papers 
for safe-keeping. 

The interest arising from the investment of the funds 
contributed by towns, cities and individuals for the erection of 
a hall of military records shall be devoted to the maintenance 
of the hall of military records provided in this section. 

Public Buildings Law, Article 2 

Sf:c. 4. Poivers and duties of superintejident. The super- 
intendent shall :************** 
5. Cause the flag of the United States and the state flag 
bearing the arms of the state, to be displayed upon the capitol 
building during the daily sessions of the legislature and on 
public occasions, and cause the necessary flag-staffs to be erected 
therefor. The necessary expenses incurred thereby shall be 
paid out of the treasury on the warrant of the comptroller. 

Public Buildings Law, Article 6 

Sec. 81. Display of foreign fags on public buildings. It 
shall not be lawful to display the flag or emblem of any foreign 
country upon any state, county or municipal building; pro- 
vided, however, that whenever any foreigner shall become 
the guest of the United States, the state or any city, upon 
public proclamation by the governor or mayor of such city, 
the flag of the country of which such public guest shall be a 
citizen may be displayed upon such public buildings. 

Election Law, Article 5 

Sec. 124. Emblems. When a party nomination is made 
by a state convention of a candidate or candidates to be voted 
for by the voters of the entire state, it shall be the duty of such 
convention to select some simple device or emblem to designate 
and distinguish the candidates of the political party making 
such nominations or nomination. * * * -i: ^\\q device 
or emblem chosen as aforesaid may be a star, an animal, an 
anchor, or any other appropriate symbol, but neither the coat 
of arms or seal of any state or of the United States, nor the 
state or national flag, nor any religious emblem or symbol, 
nor the portrait of any person, nor the representation of a 


coin or of the currency of the United States shall be chosen as 
such distinguishing device or emblem. 

State Law, Article 6 

Sec. 70. Description of the arms of the state and the 
state flag. The device of arms of this state, as adopted March 
sixteenth, seventeen hundred and seventy-eight, is hereby 
declared to be correctly described as follows : 

Charge. Azure, in a landscape, the sun in fess, rising in 
splendor or, behind a range of three mountains, the middle 
one the highest; in base a ship and sloop under sail, passing 
and about to meet on a river, bordered below by a grassy 
shore fringed with shrubs, all proper. 

Crest. On a wreath azure and or, an American eagle 
proper, rising to the dexter from a two-thirds of a globe terres- 
trial, showing the north Atlantic ocean with outlines of its 

Supporters. On a quasi compartment formed by the 
extension of the scroll. 

Dexter. The figure of Liberty proper, her hair disheveled 
and decorated with pearls, vested azure, sandaled gules, about 
the waist a cincture or fringed gules, a mantle of the last 
depending from the shoulders behind to the feet, in the 
dexter hand a staff ensigned with a Phrygian cap or, 
the sinister arm embowed, the hand supporting the shield 
at the dexter chief point, a royal crown by her sinister foot 

Sinister. The figure of Justice proper, her hair disheveled 
and decorated with pearls, vested or, about the waist a cincture 
azure, fringed gules, sandaled and mantled as Liberty, bound 
about the eyes with a fillet proper, in the dexter hand a straight 
sword hiked or, erect, resting on the sinister chief point of the 
shield, the sinister arm embowed, holding before her her 
scales proper. 

Motto. On a scroll below the shield argent, in sable, 

State flag. The State flag is hereby declared to be blue, 
charged with the arms of the state in the colors as described 
in the blazon of this section. 

Sec. 71. Painted devices of arms in certain public places. 
The device of arms of the state, corresponding to the blazon 
hereinbefore given, shall be painted in colors upon wood or 


canvas, and hung upon the walls of the executive chamber, 
the court of appeals, the office of the secretary of state, and 
the senate and assembly chambers. 

Sec. 72. Prohibition of other pictorial devices. No pic- 
torial devices other than the arms of the state shall be used 
in the public offices at the capitol for letter headings and 
envelopes used for official business. Persons printing and cir- 
culating public documents under the authority of the state, 
when they use a vignette, shall place upon the title pages of 
the documents the standard device of the state arms without 
alterations or additions. 

Sec. 73. Great seal of the state. The secretary of state 
shall cause to be engraved upon metal two and one-half inches 
in diameter the device of arms of this state, accurately con- 
formed to the description thereof given in this article, sur- 
rounded with the legend, "The great seal of the state of New 
York." It alone shall be used as the great seal of the state, 
and the secretary of state shall have the custody thereof. 

Sec. 74. U se of the great seal. All such matters as have 
issued under the great seal of the state since March sixteenth, 
seventeen hundred and seventy-eight, shall continue to be 
issued under such seal, except copies of papers and records 
certified by the secretary of state or his deputy and authenti- 
cated under his seal of office. 



\> - 



A NUMBER of American flags, either for their beauty 
or their association with some ilkistrious name or 
notable achievement, are historically famous. Some 
of these are revolutionary flags raised before the Stars 
and Stripes was made, while others are of the regulation 
pattern. Some are still preserved with religious care and 
on special occasions shown to the public. Allusion to a 
few of them will be made here. 

Flag of the Bon Homme Richard 

The most famous naval flag of the Revolution was that 
of the Bon Homme Richard, as its commander, John Paul 
Jones, was the first of the great American sea-fighters. Born 
in Scotland in 1747, and becoming a sailor at twelve years of 
age, he had seen much of romance and adventure on the seas, 
and was settled in Virginia when, in 1775, he was made a 
lieutenant in the Continental navy. He became a captain in 
1776 and on June 14, 1777 he was given command of the 
Ranger, a small vessel carry- 
ing eighteen guns. On July 
4 he is said to have hoisted 
the first Stars and Stripes that 
ever flew on an American man- 
of-war. In 1779 he trans- 
ferred the same flag to the Due 
de Duras, a rotten, condemned 
East Indiaman, on which he 
mounted forty guns of various 
caliber and renamed her, in 
honor of Benjamin Franklin, 
the Bon Homme Richard, with 
which he took many prizes in 
English waters. On the even- 
ing of September 23, accom- 
panied by two small vessels, courtesy of tlie Burrows Brothers company, Publishers, 

1 All* 11 T> n Cleveland, Ohio 

the Alliance and the r alias, From Averys History of the united states 

and Its People 

he fell in with a valuable piag of the Bon Homme Richard 

Baltic convoy off Flamborough Head, protected by two British 
men-of-war, the Serapis and the Scarborough. The Serapis 
was a brand-new double-headed frigate carrying fifty guns. 
The Pallas attacked the Scarborough and after a brief engage- 
ment compelled her surrender, while the Alliance, by 
blundering tactics, did more harm than good. The grapple 
was between the Serapis and the Richard, and, notwithstand- 
ing the condition and equipment of his vessel, Jones fought 
one of the most desperate battles and won one of the most 
brilliant victories in naval annals. There was no let-up from 
beginning to end and the carnage was terrific. The better 
captain won, and the better ship lost. The Richard was riddled 
from stem to stern and was enveloped in flames and sinking, 
but Jones kept right on pouring broadsides into the Serapis. 
When his surrender was demanded, he replied, "I have not 
yet begun to fight," and after several hours of the bloodiest 
conflict it was the Serapis that hauled down her colors. All 
hands that were left were transferred to the Serapis, her crew 
were made prisoners, and the Richard was abandoned and 
went to her watery grave, the dead being left with her. But 
she went down "bows first" with her flag at the masthead. 
Of the two crews, nearly 700 in number, 350 were killed or 
wounded. As Paul Jones himself says, "the very last vestige 
mortal eyes ever saw of the Bon Homme Richard was the 
defiant waving of her unconquered and unstricken flag as she 
went down. And as I had given them the good old ship for 
their sepulchre, I now bequeathed to my immortal dead, the 
flag they had so desperately defended for their winding sheet." 
Was ever a finer tribute than this paid to the flag ? The flag 
in the National Museum, a cut of which appears on the pre- 
ceding page, was thought for a time to be the flag of the Bon 
Homme Richard, but it is now conceded that the original flag 
went down with the ship. 

Flag of Philadelphia Light Horse 
The earliest use of stripes on an American flag, as already 
indicated, is believed to have been in 1775 on the banner of 
the Philadelphia Light Horse Troop. The banner was pre- 
sented to the troop by its first captain, Abram Markoe. It is 
made of bright yellow silk, and is forty inches long and thirty- 
four inches broad, with thirteen blue and silver stripes alter- 
nating in the canton. Over the crest, a horse's head, are the 


letters "L. H.," Light Horse. An American Indian and an 
angel blowing a golden trumpet support the scroll under which 
appear the words, "For These We Strive." The troop was 
organized in 1774. When Washington left Philadelphia on 

■ 1- T.-l 



^'.Afth:. „ ~ , 

Courtesy of The Burrows Brothers Ciuiinny, From Avery's History of the United 

Publishers, Cleveland, Uhio states and Its People 

Standard of the Philadelphia Light Horse Troop of 1775 

June 23, 1775 to go to Cambridge to assume command of 
the Colonial army, he was escorted to New York by the 
troop, and it is believed that this banner was carried at 
that time. It is now carefully preserved by the First Troop, 
Philadelphia City Cavalry. 

The Eutaw Flag 
The crimson standard, known as the Eutaw flag, tells a 
love story of the Revolutionary times. In 1780 Colonel 
William Augustine Washington, a relative of General Wash- 
ington, came from Virginia to South Carolina in command of 
a force of cavalry. He met and soon fell in love with Miss 
Jane Elliott, who lived near Charleston. Learning one day, 
when Colonel Washington was paying her a visit, that his 
corps had no flag. Miss Elliott seized her scissors and cut a 
square section from a piece of drapery and requested him to 
accept it as his standard. He readily accepted and bore this 


simple banner upon a hickory pole until the close of the 
war. Colonel Washington and Miss Elliott were married 
in 1782. The Eutaw flag was carried at the battle of 

C o w p e n s and at 
that of Eutaw 
Springs, where it got 
its name. The ban- 
ner was presented 
by Mrs Washington in 
1827 ^^ ^h^ Washington 
Light Infantry of 
Charleston, and is still 
in the possession of that 

Pulaski's Banner 

The Maryland His- 
torical Society carefully 
preserves at Baltimore 
the banner of Pulaski, 
which is reproduced on 
the opposite page. Our 
histories of the Revolution have not given much space to its 
romantic story. Count Casimir Pulaski was a true soldier of 
fortune. The son of a nobleman, he was born in Podalia, 
Poland, March 4, 1748. After having been known as the lead- 
ing Polish military patriot, and having been chosen commander- 
in-chief of the Polish forces, he found himself at the age of 
twenty-four outlawed, with his estates confiscated, and a price 
set upon his head. He went to Turkey and thence to France, 
and in 1777 upon the advice of Benjamin Franklin he joined 
the American army as a volunteer. He attracted Washington's 
attention, had a part in the battle of Germantown, and on 
September 15, 1777 was appointed commander of the cavalry 
with the rank of major-general. He resigned his command in 
March 1778, and was authorized by Congress to raise and 
organize a corps of "sixty-eight light horse and two hundred 
foot." This was known as Pulaski's Legion. The banner 
of the legion was made by the Moravian Single Sisters of 
Bethlehem, Pa. It is twenty inches square and was attached 
to a lance when borne on the field. On one side are the 
letters "U S" and, in a circle around them, the words 

Courtesy of The Burrows Brothers Company, Publishers, 

Cleveland. Ohio 

From Avery's History of the Lrnited States and Its People 

The Eutaw Standard 


"Unitas Virtus Forcior," meaning "Union Makes Valor 
Stronger." The letter "c" in the last word should be "t." 
On the other side, surrounding an eye, are the words, "Non 
Alius Regit," meaning "No Other Governs." Pulaski carried 
this banner when he was ordered to South Carolina with his 
troops in 1779. On October 9, when the combined French 
and American forces attacked the British at Savannah, Pulaski 
• commanded the cavalry of both armies. A true soldier to the 
last, he received a mortal wound in this battle and died shortly 
after having been taken on board the United States brig 
Wasp. This brilliant Polish soldier, an exile from his own 
country, at the age of thirty-one was consigned to a watery 
grave in the new land for which he gave up his life. Paul 
Bentalon of Baltimore, one of Pulaski's captains, was with 
him when he fell. He secured the now famous banner and it 
subsequently passed into the possession of the Maryland 
Historical Society, where it now remains. 

"Old Glory" 

The Essex Institute at Salem, Massachusetts, has in its 
possession what is believed to be the first flag to receive the 
name Old Glory. Captain William Driver, who was born 
in Salem, March 17, 1803, is given credit for originating the 
title. In 1837 he removed to Nashville, Tennessee, where he 
died on March 2, 1886. In 1831 he commanded the brig 
Charles Doggett on the voyage in which the mutineers of 
the British ship Bounty were rescued and returned to Pitcairn 
island. Captain Driver was presented with the flag just 
before the brig sailed, and as it was hoisted it is said that he 
christened it Old Glory. He carried his cherished flag with 
him to his new home in Nashville and exhibited it upon many 
occasions. When the Civil War broke out, the Confederates 
tried to get possession of the flag, and searched his house for 
it. He sewed it up securely in his bed covers and it was not 
discovered. When the Federal troops entered Nashville on 
February 25, 1862 Captain Driver secured permission to raise 
his flag over the state capitol. It is said that he unfurled it 
from the flag-staft^ himself, and, with tears in his eyes, as it 
sw^ung free in the breeze remarked, "There, those Texas 
Rangers have been huntins; for that these six months without 
finding it, and thev knew I had it. I have always said if I could 
see it float over that capitol I should have lived long enough; 


now Old Glory is up there, gentlemen, and I am ready to 
die." He gave the flag in 1882 to his niece, Mrs Harriet 
Ruth Cooke, and upon his death in 1886 she presented it to 
the Essex Institute, where it is now carefully preserved. 
Through the courtesy of the institute a half tone reproduc- 

tion of the flag is shown below. 

'Old Glory" 

The Confederate Flags 


THE Confederate States of America, during their re- 
volt from the Union, floated three different banners 
successively. The first, known as the "stars and 
bars," was adopted by the convention at Montgomery, 
March 4, 1861, the very day on which Abraham Lincoln 
was inaugurated president of the United States. It is thus 
described in the report of the committee which recommended 
its adoption : 

The flag of the Confederate States of America shall consist of a red field, 
with a white space extending horizontally through the center, and equal in 
width to one-third the width of the flag; the red spaces above and below to be 
of the same width as the white. The union blue, extending down through 
the white space and stopping at the lower red space; in the center of the union, 
a circle of white stars corresponding in number (then seven) with the states 
of the Confederacy. 

In the selection of this flag, so similar to that of the 
United States, and yet diff^ering sufficiently from it, as was 
assumed, to mark the distinction, it is evident that affec- 
tion for the Stars and Stripes carried away those who were 
arrayed against it. Indeed, the committee candidly acknowl- 
edged that something "was conceded to what seemed so 
strong and earnest a desire to retain at least a suggestion 
of the old stars and stripes." Events, however, showed 
that the resemblance was too pronounced and occasioned 
confusion and mistakes, and in battle it was almost wholly 
superseded by General Beauregard's battle flag, which was a 
red or crimson field, its bars blue, running diagonally across 
from one corner to the other, the stars, white or gold, the 
blue bars being separated from the red field by a white 
fillet. The need of a change became apparent, and was 
thus plainly stated in the Richmond Dispatch of December 
7, 1861: 

We knew the flag we had to fight; yet, instead of getting as far from it, 
we were guilty of getting as near to it as possible. We sought similarity, 
adopting a principle dramatically wrong. We made a flag as nearly like 
theirs as could only under favorable circumstances be distinguished from it. 
Under unfavorable circumstances (such as constantly occur in practice), the 
two flags are indistinguishable. 


Thus, after much discussion, the second flag oi the Con- 
federacy was estabhshed by its Congress, May i, 1863: 

The flaff of the Confederate States shall be as follows: The field to be 
white, the length double the width of the flag, with the union, now used as 
the battle flag, to be a square of two-thirds of the width of the flag, having 
the o-round red; therein a broad saltire (St Andrew's cross) of blue, bordered 
with white and emblazoned with white mullets or five-pointed stars, corre- 
sponding in number to that of the Confederate States. 

The objections to this flag were that at a distance it bore a 
close resemblance to the British white ensign and also that 
it had the appearance of a flag of truce, and they seemed so 
valid that it was resolved to add a broad transverse strip of 
red to the end of the fly of the flag. So the third national ensign 
of the Confederacy was adopted by its Senate on February 4, 
1865, and is thus officially described: 

The width two-thirds of its length; with the union now used as a battle 
flag to be in width three-fifths of the width of the flag, and so proportioned 
as to leave the length of the field on the side of the union twice the width below 
it; to have a ground of red and broad blue saltire thereon, bordered with white, 
and emblazoned with mullets or five-pointed stars, corresponding in number 
to that of the Confederate States. The field to be white, except the outer half 
from the union, which shall be a red bar, extending the width of the flag. 

This flag was short-lived. It hardly lived to be born. 
The Confederacy died at Appomatox, April 9, 1865, and with 
it the flag. Southern loyalty to the Republic was renewed 
and Southern love for the old flag was revived. The South vies 
with the North in the arts of peace and stands shoulder to 
shoulder with her in the conflict of arms. Now, for both, 
there is and ever will be one land, one government, one people 
and one flag — the Stars and Stripes. 

By the flow of the inland river. 

Whence the fleets ot iron have fled. 
Where the blades of the grave-grass quiver. 
Asleep are the ranks of the dead; — 
Under the sod and the dew. 

Waiting the judgment day; — 
Under the one, the Blue; 
Under the other, the Gray. 

These in the robings of glory. 

Those in the gloom ot defeat. 
All with the battle-blood gory. 

In the dusk of eternity meet; — 


Under the sod and the dew, 

Waiting the judgment day; — 
Under the laurel, the Blue; 

Under the willow, the Gray. 

From the silence of sorrowful hours 

The desolate mourners go. 
Lovingly laden with flowers 

Alike for the friend and the foe; — 
Under the sod and the dew, 

Waiting the judgment day; — 
Under the roses, the Blue; 
Under the lilies, the Gray. 

So, with an equal splendor 

The morning sun-rays fall. 
With a touch, impartially tender. 
On the blossoms blooming tor all; 
Under the sod and the dew, 

Waiting the judgment day; — 
Broidered with gold, the Blue; 
Mellowed with gold, the Gray. 

So, when the summer calleth, 
On forest and field ot grain 
W^ith an equal murmur falleth 
The cooling drip of the rain; — 
Under the sod and the dew, 

Waiting the judgment day; — 
Wet with the rain, the Blue; 
Wet with the rain, the Gray. 

Sadly, but not with upbraiding, 
The generous deed was done; 
In the storm of the years that are fading, 
No braver battle was won ; — 
Under the sod and the dew, 

Waiting the judgment day; — 
Under the blossoms, the Blue; 
Under the garlands, the Gray. 

No more shall the war-cry sever. 
Or the winding rivers be red; 
They banish our anger forever 

When they laurel the graves of our dead! 
Under the sod and the dew. 

Waiting the judgment day; — 
Love and tears for the Blue; 
Tears and love for the Gray. 

Francis M. Finch 

Judge in tfczu Tarh Court of Appeals, /SSo-gj 



Ye who love the Republic, remember the claim 
Ye owe to her fortunes, ye owe to her name, 
To her years of prosperity past and in store, — 
A hundred behind you, a thousand before! 

The blue arch above us is Liberty's dome. 
The green fields beneath us Equality's home ; 
But the schoolroom today is Humanity's friend, — 
Let the people the flag and the schoolroom defend! 

'Tts the schoolhouse that stands by tlie flag; 
Let the nation stand by the school / 
'Tis the school bell that rings for our Liberty old, 
'Tis the school boy whose ballot shall rule. 

Frank Treat Southwick 



THE custom of raising the Stars and Stripes over the 
schoolhouses of the land, especially at critical periods 
in the history of the nation, as an inspiration to the 
children of America, dates back nearly a century. The first 
authenticated history of such a ceremony is that at Catamount 
Hill, Colrain, Massachusetts in May 1812. A monument 
with a suitable inscription commemorative of the event has 
been placed upon the site of the log schoolhouse at Cata- 
mount. The custom grew with the years and at the breaking 
out of the Civil War became general in the Northern States. 
There are several claimants for the honor of raising; the first 
schoolhouse flag in 1861 and among these are Winchester and 
Hillsboro Center, New Hampshire, and Lawrence, New Bed- 
ford and Groveland, Massachusetts. Since the Civil War 
the custom has been resolved in many states into law. In 
1867 flags were raised over the public schools in New York 
city. Later came an enthusiastic movement in which edu- 
cators, lawmakers and 
patriotic citizens gener- 
ally took part, for com- 
pelling the exhibition of 
the flag at or on school- 
houses, and still later 
one in favor of the ob- 
servance of patriotic 
exercises in the schools 
on the 14th of June — 
Flag day. The follow- 
ing statutes with these 
objects in view have 
been passed by various 
states. The chronolog- 
ical order will show the 
national scope of these 
laws, and it will not be 
long before every state 

in the Union will fly Monument at Catamount Hill 


the Stars and Stripes over its schoolhouses and seminaries of 
learning and June 14 will be a festal occasion, if not a prescribed 
holiday, all over the land. 

North Dakota : School boards may purchase United States 
flags to place on or in buildings. March 18, 1890. 

New Jersey: School boards may purchase United States 
flags to place on or in buildings. May 5, 1890. 
United States flag must be displayed on schoolhouses. 
April 4, 1894. Flag day, June 14, to be observed in 
schools. April 1907. 

Colorado: United States flag must be displayed on school- 
houses. March 26, 1 89 1. 

Connecticut: United States flag must be displayed on 
schoolhouses. June 14, 1893. 

Delaware: United States flag must be displayed on school- 
houses. January 31, 1895. 

Montana : School authorities shall purchase and display 
during school hours and at other times the United 
States flag. February 26, 1895. 

Wisconsin: United States flag must be displayed on school- 
houses. March 29, 1895. 

Massachusetts : United States flag must be displayed on 
schoolhouses. April 3, 1895. 

New York: United States flag must be displayed on school- 
houses. April 3, 1895. 

Authorities to have United States flag displayed upon 
or near every public school during school hours; State 
Commissioner of Education to provide program for 
salute to flag, other patriotic exercises and observance 
of holidays (including Flag day). April 22, 1898. 

Michigan: United States flag must be displayed on school- 
houses. April 4, 1895. 
Designating June 14 as Flag day. May 4, 1901. 

Illinois : United States flag must be displayed on school- 
houses. June 26, 1895. 

Flag to be placed on schoolhouses on such days as 
directors may determine. June 2, 1897. 


Ohio : United States flag must be displayed on school- 
houses. March 25, 1896. 

Pennsylvania : School authorities may purchase United 
States flags and display at discretion. July 9, 1897. 

Rhode Island : United States flag to be displayed on public 
school buildings; school committees to regulate time; 
February 12 to be Grand Army Flag day; commis- 
sioner of public schools to prepare program. February 
21, 1 90 1. 

West Virginia : Boards of education may provide for and 
require display of United States flag over schoolhouses. 
February 22, 1901. 

Wyoming: School district trustees to place United States 
flags on schoolhouses. February 23, 1903. 

New Hampshire: School boards to purchase flags for 
schoolhouses at city or town expense not exceeding 
^10 apiece. March 3, 1903. 

Arizona : United States flag to be provided for each school 
building; superintendent of public instruction to pre- 
pare patriotic programs for holidays (including Flag 
day). March 13, 1903. 

Idaho: Schools to be provided with flags. March 10, 
1903. Amending act of 1899. 

New Mexico : Public schools to own and display United 
States flag; February 12 to be celebrated as Flag 
day; daily flag salute. March 10, 1905. 

Oklahoma : Misdemeanor for city board of education or 
school district board not to display United States flag 
in schoolhouse. March 10, 1905. 

Oregon : Requiring display of United States flag on school 
buildings in clement weather during school hours. 
February 16, 1907. 

Kansas: United States flag to be displayed at public 
schools; flag exercises daily and observance of holidays. 
March 6, 1907. 

Utah : American flag to be displayed on schoolhouses on 
legal holidays, February 12 and Flag day. March 
II, 1907. 


Indiana : School trustees to accept donation for United 
States flag to be displayed on holidays. March 12, 


California: School authorities to provide flags to be raised 
over schoolhouses during sessions; smaller flags for 
class rooms. March 15, 1907. 

Maine: Municipalities to furnish all schools with flags. 
March 28, 1907. 

Tennessee: Requiring display of United States flag on 
school buildings in counties of 70,000 to 90,000. April 
15, 1907. 

Vermont: Requiring display of United States flag on 
premises of school when in session. December 2, 

Salute to the Flag for Schools 

The American Flag Association, which was organized in 
New" York city in 1897, is a society of individual members, 
and also a union of flag committees of the patriotic societies 
of the United States. The object of the association may be 
stated to be "the fostering of public sentiment in favor of 
honoring the flag of our country, and preserving it from 
desecration, and of initiating and forwarding legal meas- 
ures to prevent such desecration." The object is one to 
which all patriotic citizens can subscribe. The association 
has already circulated widely its suggested salute to the flag 
for schools. This salute is not prescribed by the Education 
Department; but is printed below for the information of 
school officers and teachers and its use when practicable is 

At a given hour in the morning, the pupils are assembled 
and in their places in the school. A signal is given by the 
principal of the school. Every pupil rises in his place. The 
flag is brought forward to the principal or teacher. While it 
is being brought forward from the door to the stand of the 
principal or teacher, every pupil gives the flag the military 
salute, which is as follows : 

The right hand uplifted, palm upward, to a line with the 
forehead close to it. While thus standing with palm upward 
and in the attitude of salute, all the pupils repeat together 
slowly and distinctly the following pledge : 


I pledge allegiance to my flag and to the Republic for which 

it stands, 
One nation indivisible, with Hberty and justice tor all. 

At the words, as pronounced in this pledge, "to my flag," 
each one extends the right hand gracefully, palm upward, 
toward the flag until the end of the pledge aflEirmation. Then 
all hands drop to the side. The pupils, still standing, all sing 
together in unison the song America. 

In the primary departments, where the children are very 
small they are taught to repeat this, instead of the pledge as 
given for the older children : 

I give my head and my heart to God and my Country, 
One Country, one Language, one Flag. 

In some schools, the salute is given in silence, as an act 
of reverence, unaccompanied by any pledge. At a signal, as 
the flag reaches its station, the right hand raised palm down- 
ward, to a horizontal position against the forehead, and held 
there until the flag is dipped and returned to a vertical position. 
Then, at the second signal, the hand is dropped to the side and 
the pupil takes his seat. 

The silent salute conforms very closely to the military and 
naval salute to the flag. 

Principals may adopt the "silent salute" for a daily exer- 
cise and the "pledge salute" for special occasions. 

Flag Day Exercises 
for the grades 

A suggested program for the grades, prepared by Miss Clara Walker, Principal 
School No. 1 6, Albany, New York. 

1. Chorus — America. 

2. Exercise — The Flag of Our Country. 


One pupil leads, carrying large American flag, and takes his place 
on platform at extreme right. Nineteen children follow, each carry- 
ing a large white letter. It is suggested that the letters forming the 
words of the title be mounted on alternate red and blue shields, as 
THE on red, FLAG on blue, etc. The pupil bearing the first letter 
stands opposite the leader at extreme left, the others standing so that 
the words may be easily read. Each pupil recites one line, except 
the nineteenth, who recites two lines. 


There is our country's banner 
Held by a loyal hand; 
Each heart holds it in honor 

Floating o'er all the land. 
Love it we shall forever, 
And as we older grow. 
Great hope be ours that never 

Our nation's blood shall flow. 
From ocean vast to ocean 

O, may men ever be 
United in its devotion, 
Reliant, safe, and free. 

Colors, crimson, blue and white, 
Of these our flag is made; 
Unfurled, floating in the light 
Ne'er will its glory fade. 
Those white stars on field of blue 
Reveal the Union strong, 
Yea, patient, stanch, sturdy, true. 
In making right, in breaking wrong. 

Leader with flag steps forward to center of the platform. At signal 
the school rises and in concert gives the oath of allegiance to the 
flag. (Page 69.) 

3. Chorus — O, Starry Flag of Union, Hail. (Page 85.) 

4. Declamation — The American Flag, by H. W. Beecher. 

(Page 82.) 


5. Recitation — Captain Molly at Monmouth. (Page 98.) 


6. Chorus — Oh, Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean. (Page 


7. Tableau — Making the Flag. 


The boys represent General Washington, Robert Morris and 
George Ross, standing, while one girl, Betsy Ross, is seated, sewing 


on a flag. Very simple costumes will answer for this tableau. The 
second girl, in ordinary dress, recites The Banner Betsy Made. 

8. Song — There are Many Flags. 


Each pupil carries a small flag which is held upright during the 
singing of the verses, and waved above the head while the chorus is 
being sung. 

g. Recitation — The Name of Old Glory. (Page 96.) 


10. Chorus — The Schoolhouse and the Flag. (Page 64.) 

11. Recitation — A Song for Flag Day. (Page 95.) 


12. Concert Recitation — God Save the Flag. (Page 96.) 

ten third grade pupils 

13. Chorus — The Flag Goes By. (Page 95.) 

14. Evolution of the American Flag. 

seven eighth grade boys 

Each boy carries the flag indicated by his description. It will add 
interest to this exercise if the girls of the class make the flags in their 
manual training class. Cheesecloth will serve the purpose. The 
boys may make the dowels and mount the banners. 

First Boy — This is St George's cross which was planted at 
Labrador by Cabot in 1497, to proclaim England's possessive right 
to the land. It was the first English flag unfurled in America. 

Second Boy — I bear the banner that first floated over the perma- 
nent settlements in America. This flag was known as the King's 
Colors, and was made by combining the white cross of St Andrew 
and the red cross of St George, when England and Scotland were 
united after centuries of war. It is believed by many historians 
that the ship that brought over the Jamestown colonists in 1607, and 
also the good ship Mayflower in 1620, carried both the cross of St 
George and the King's Colors. 

Third Boy — The Pine Tree Flag of New England, as well as the 
Liberty Flag and the Rattlesnake Flag displayed the beginning of an 
independent spirit among the American colonists. 

Fourth Boy — The first flag of American independence was 
unfurled over Washington's headquarters at Cambridge in January 
1776. It was adopted by the Continental Congress, and consisted 
of thirteen stripes, representing the thirteen united colonies, and 


retained the King's Colors as evidence that the colonists still considered 
themselves Englishmen. 

Fifth Boy — This flag must thrill every heart as we realize that 
our fathers, assembled in Congress, June 14, 1777, nearly a year 
after the Declaration of Independence vi^as passed, adopted this 
design of thirteen stripes and thirteen stars to show to all the nations 
on earth the right of the new-born nation to a place among them. 

Sixth Boy — Although Vermont was admitted into the Union in 
1 791 and Kentucky in 1792, no change was made in the flag until 
July 4, 1795, when by act of Congress two stripes and two stars 
were added. In a few years it became evident that it would be im- 
possible to continue to add a star and a stripe for each new State. 
In 18 18, there then being twenty States, Congress enacted a law mak- 
ing the flag of the United States thirteen alternate red and white 
horizontal stripes, and providing that one star be added to the union 
of the field upon the admission of each new state. 

Seventh Boy — Our country's flag! Proudest emblem of our 
nation's life! America's heroes lifted it high over Fort Stanwix, 
Saratoga, Monmouth, Stony Point, Yorktown, Gettysburg, Vicks- 
burg, Richmond, San Juan and Manila. It has been carried to the 
North Pole by American hands. Wherever it goes, may it forever 
carry peace and prosperity. 

15. Semichorus — Our Flag High Above. (Page 99.) 


16. Solo and Chorus — Star Spangled Banner. (Page 86.) 

solo by sexth grade boy 

17. Flag Drill. 

twenty-six second grade pupils 

M Rliia 




Whi tp 



































This may be given by equal numbers of boys and girls, or in 
couples to suit the personnel of the class. Couple A A are the smallest, 


M M the largest. The diagram will explain the arrangement as it 
appears at the final figure in the formation of the flag. Strips of 
cheesecloth of suitable length to make the desired width of the flag, 
are used. The ends of the strips are pinned to the shoulders of A A, 
B B, etc. Couples join hands in center of strip and hold it from the 
floor during the march. Beginning with G G the strips must be of 
two colors sewed together: G G has red and blue, H H has white and 
blue, etc. White paper stars pasted on the blue will enhance the eff"ect. 
Children enter stage in couples, A A, B B, etc., in order. March for- 
ward, turn to left, march to back, down center. A A turn to right, 
B B to left, C C to right, D D to left, etc. Meeting at center back, 
couples fall into first position, B B following A A, etc. Down center, 
separate as before, come forward from center back in double couples, 
with space between E E F F and stand marking time. 

C C D D 

A A B B 

The odd couple M M advance through space between the lines; one 
turns to right, one to left, winding in and out between couples until 
they reach position at back. The two columns move forward, A A 
turning to the left, B B to right, C C to left, etc., until they reach 
center back, when they fall into first position. Couples separate 
length of streamer, thereby showing flag in position. Close up ranks 
and march off in couples. 

1 8. Chorus — My Own United States. 

For High Schools 

A suggested piogram for high schools prepared by Supt. F. D. Boynton, 

Ithaca, New York. 

Chorus — The Star Spangled Banner Key 

Declamation — The Stars and Stripes .... Sumtzer 
Essay — The Evolution of the American Flag. 

Recitation — The American Flag Drake 

Chorus — Battle Hymn of the Republic .... Howe 

Essay — What the Flag Stands For. 

Declamation — The Man without a Country . . Hale 

Chorus — Hail Columbia Hopkinson 

Recitation — The Blue and the Gray Finch 

Declamation — Gettysburg Speech Lincoln 

Chorus — Tenting on the Old Camp Ground . . Smith 
Essay — Explanation of famous sayings on page 79. 
Salute to the Flag by the school. 
Chorus — America Smith 













How TO Make a Flag 

Prepared by Miss Grace C. Parsons, instructor in sewing and drawing, 
Vocational School, Albany, New York. 

I. She. 9' 9" X 6' 6". 

This particular size is suggested for convenience of 
measurements. The proportions, however, are close to those 
prescribed by United States Armv regulations. 

II. Material. 

8 yards of red bunting. 
3^ yards of blue bunting. 
8 yards of white bunting. 

1 yard of canvas. 

i^ yards of stout muslin. 

2 harness rings. 

2 spools of white thread, no. 6o. 

III. The Plan. 

The planning of the flag can be done as a class lesson — 
a drawing made by each pupil. 

The field of the union should be 3' 9" x 3' 6'\ the stripes 
6" wide, and the canvas binding at back 2^" wide, when fin- 
ished (see diagram I). 

The forty-six stars are arranged in six rows, eight in the 




**•• • • ^ I 










r - 

- - 

- - 

- - 

- - 


































first, seven in the second, eight in the next two, seven in the 

next, and eight in the last (see diagram I). 

The arrangement of stars 
will be according to diagram 
II. The length of the blue 
field can be divided into eighths 
and the depth into sixths. 
This makes forty-eight ob- 
longs. The rows having eight 
stars will have the stars placed 
in center of oblong, those hav- 
ing seven stars, the center of star 
placed on line (see diagram II). 
Two rings \" in diameter 

are placed in the canvas strip \" from the end. 

IV. The Star. 

The class can then make the pattern for a five-pointed star. 
The geometric problem of constructing a pentagon within a 
circle is the one involved. 

Draw a 4" circle. Draw the horizontal and vertical 
diameters A B and C D. Make the point of intersec- 
tion E. Bisect E B and mark the point of intersection F. 
With F as center and C F as radius, transcribe an arc 
cutting A E. Mark point of intersection G. With G C as 
radius and C as center, describe two arcs on either side 
of C cutting circumference at H and J. With H and J as 
centers and same radius de- 
scribe tw^o more arcs, cutting 
circumference at K and L. 
Connecting points on cir- 
cumference gives pentagon. 
Connect C K and C L, J L 
and J H, and H K. This 
w^ill give the five-pointed star. 
Cut this out for pattern (see 
diagram III). 

A star may be cut quickly 
by folding as in diagram IV. 

V. Computing Amount of 

Material and Cost. 
After the drawing has been made and the stars cut, 


the class can compute the amount of material necessary 
and the cost. 

The bunting comes one yard wide. 

Let the pupils find the number of stripes of red and of 
white that can be cut from one 
width of goods. One-half inch 
must be allowed for seams, 
and one inch for hem at end 
of flag. Plan to have the two 
outside red stripes selvage. 

Compute amount of blue 
needed. It will probably be 
necessary to have a seam 
lengthwise through the middle 
of the blue field. 

Then figure the amount of 
muslin for ninety-two stars 
like pattern and the amount 
of canvas for binding. 

The flag should be enforced 
at each back corner where the 
rings are placed, by an extra 
piece of bunting {6" x j") 
stitched flat like a patch. This 
will come on the blue field 
and on the lowest red stripe. 

VI. The Making. 

The two pieces which 
strengthen the corners where 
the rings are placed should be 
stitched down first. 

The seams are felled and made as narrow as possible 
(tV finished). They should be carefully basted and stitched 
on a machine. 

The blue field can be divided up in sections as planned 
on drawing (diagram II). This can be marked out by stretch- 
ing a chalked cord at opposite division points and snapping 
it down on cloth. 

To mark the centers make a pattern of one oblong and 
punch a small hole in center. Lay pattern on each oblong 
of cloth and chalk center. 

Cf) O/^oouvS rei/er^e of (§) 
Cut on dolfcol J/ne. at CI) 


Each star can be overcast with a shallow but close stitch 
before sewing to field. It can then be basted on one side of 

the field, then on the opposite side, 
and finally stitched to the blue. The 
stitching should be from point to point 
through the center as in diagram V. 

In seaming the blue field to the 
stripes, seam across the flag first, then 
down the length in one seam. 

Stitch hem on end of flag with 
three rows of stitching and canvas 
binding at back with two rows. 
The harness rings can be laid on canvas an inch from the 
end and marked for inside circle — the goods cut from center 
of circle to mark in three or four places, turned back on ring 
and buttonholed over with stout linen thread (see diagram VI). 
The work can be divided up as it seems feasible. A group 
of girls can sew the stripes 
together — another group can 
baste the stars on while a third 
group is overcasting the edges 
of the stars. 


Breathes there the man, with soul so dead, 
Who never to himself hath said, 

This is my own, my native land! 
Whose heart hath ne'er within hmi hurn'd, 
As home his footsteps he hath turn'd, 

From wandering on a foreign strand! 
If such there breathe, go, mark him well; 
For him no minstrel raptures swell; 
High though his titles, proud his name. 
Boundless his wealth as wish can claim; 
Despite those titles, power, and pelf, 
The wretch, concentred all in self, 
Living, shall forfeit fair renown. 
And, doubly dying, shall go down 
To the vile dust, from whence he sprung. 
Unwept, unhonour'd, and unsung. 

Sir Walter Scott 


Don't give up the ship. Capt. James Lawrence 

Sink or swim, Hve or die, survive or perish, I give my 
heart and my hand to this vote. John Adams 

A star for every state, and a state for every star. 

Robert Charles Winthrop 

See, there is Jackson, standing Hke a stone wall. 

Bernard E. Bee 

I propose to hght it out on this line if it takes all summer. 

Ulysses S. Grant 

We have met the enemy, and they are ours. 

Oliver Hazard Perry 

A little more grape, Captain Bragg. 

General Zachary Taylor 

I am not worth purchasing, but such as I am, the king 
of England is not rich enough to buy me. 

General Joseph Reed 

I know not what course others may take; but, as for me, 
give me liberty or give me death. Patrick Henry 

I have not yet begun to fight. Paul Jones 

There they are, boys ; we must beat them today, or this 
night Molly Stark's a widow. Colonel John Stark 

Millions for defense, not one cent for tribute. 

Charles C. Pinckney 

ril try, sir. Colonel James Miller 

If any one attempts to haul down the American flag, 
shoot him on the spot. General John A. Dix 

I regret that I ha\e but one life to give to my country. 

Nathan Hale 


The Story of a New York Boy 

EVERY boy and girl ought to know the story of Colonel 
Elmer E. Ellsworth, a New York boy whose death in 
defense of the flag at Alexandria, Virginia, on May 24, 1861, 
was a tragic incident in the beginning of the Civil War. He 
was born at Mechanicville, New York, on April 23, 1837. 
His parents were poor and he was early thrown on his own 
resources. As a mere boy he drifted to Troy and then to 
New York, where he worked at whatever he could find to do. 
Always passionately fond of military tactics, he spent much 
time in New York watching the drill of the Seventh Regiment 
and in perfecting himself in the manual of arms. At the age 
of twenty-two we find him a student in a law office in Chicago, 
going hungry many times and sleeping on the floor of the 
office. He became an expert fencer and soon was captain of 
a company of young men known as the Chicago Zouaves. 
Drilling his company to perfection, he challenged the militia 
companies of the United States and made a successful tour of 
the country in the summer of i860, surpassing many of the 
crack companies in eastern cities. At the age of twenty-three 
he went back to Chicago one of the most talked of men in the 
country. Soon thereafter he entered the law office of Abraham 
Lincoln at Springfield, and while making speeches in support 
of Lincoln's candidacy for the presidency, he was dreaming of 
a national bureau of militia, and more, he was making definite, 
rational plans to that end. He accompanied the president- 
elect to Washington, and Lincoln made him a lieutenant in 
the army. When the war broke out he went to New York 
and organized the New York Zouaves, a regiment of 1,100 
men, and early in May 1861 brought his regiment to Wash- 
ington. On the evening of May 23 he was ordered with his 
regiment to occupy the town of Alexandria, Virginia. This 
he did at dawn the following morning without resistance. On 
his way with a squad of Zouaves to take possession of the 
telegraph office he caught sight of a Confederate flag floating 
from the summit of the Marshall House. Accompanied by 
four soldiers he rushed into the hotel, up the stairs to the roof, 
and tore down the flag. Coming down the stairs he was met 
by the hotel-keeper and shot dead. The uniform he wore, 
the sword he carried, and the Confederate flag he tore down 
are now displayed in the capitol at Albany and are reproduced 
on the opposite page. A monument at Mechanicville marks 


the last resting place of this brilliant young New York soldier, 
who gave up his life at the very beginning of a great civil war 
which was to purge the country of its greatest evil and more 
firmly establish the flag of the Union. 

The American Flag 

A THOUGHTFUL mind, when it sees a nation's flag, 
sees not the flag only, but the nation itself; and what- 
ever may be its symbols, its insignia, he reads chiefly in the 
flag the government, the principles, the truth, the history, 
which belong to the nation that sets it forth. 

When the French tricolor rolls out to the wind, we see 
France. When the new-found Italian flag is unfurled, we see 
resurrected Italy. When the other three-cornered Hungarian 
flag shall be lifted to the wind, we shall see in it the long-buried 
but never dead principles of Hungarian liberty. When the 
united crosses of St Andrew and St George, on a fiery ground, 
set forth the banner of Old England, we see not the cloth 
merely; there rises up before the mind the noble aspect of 
that monarchy, which, more than any other on the globe, has 
advanced its banner for liberty, law, and national prosperity. 

This nation has a banner, too; and wherever it streamed 
abroad, men saw daybreak bursting on their eyes, for the 
American flag has been the symbol of liberty, and men rejoiced 
in it. Not another flag on the globe had such an errand, or 
went forth upon the sea, carrying everywhere the glorious 

The stars upon it were to the pining nations like the morn- 
ing stars of God, and the stripes upon it were beams of morning 

As at early dawn the stars stand first, and then it grows 
light, and then as the sun advances, that light breaks into 
banks and streaming lines of color, the glowing red and intense 
white striving together and ribbing the horizon with bars 
eff^ulgent, so on the American flag, stars and beams of many- 
colored light shine out together. And wherever the flag 
comes, and men behold it, they see in its sacred emblazonry 
no rampant lion and fierce eagle, but only LIGHT, and every 
fold significant of liberty. 

The history of this banner is all on one side. Under it 
rode Washington and his armies; before it Burgoyne laid 
down his arms. It waved on the highlands at West Point; 


it floated over old Fort Montgomery. When Arnold would 
have surrendered these valuable fortresses and precious 
legacies, his night was turned into day, and his treach- 
ery was driven away, by the beams of light from this starry 

It cheered our army, driven from New York, in their 
solitary pilgrimage through New Jersey. It streamed in light 
over Valley Forge and Morristown. It crossed the waters 
rolling with ice at Trenton; and when its stars gleamed in the 
cold morning with victory, a new day of hope dawned on the 
despondency of the nation. And when, at length, the long 
years of war were drawing to a close, underneath the folds of 
this immortal banner sat Washington, while Yorktown sur- 
rendered its hosts, and our Revolutionary struggles ended with 

Let us then twine each thread of the glorious tissue of our 
country's flag about our heartstrings; and looking upon our 
homes and catching the spirit that breathes upon us from the 
battle-fields of our fathers, let us resolve, come weal or woe, 
we will, in life and in death, now and forever, stand by the 
stars and stripes. They have been unfurled from the snows 
of Canada to the plains of New Orleans, in the halls of the 
Montezumas and amid the solitude of every sea; and every- 
where, as the luminous symbol of resistless and beneficent 
power, they have led the brave to victory and to glory. They 
have floated over our cradles; let it be our prayer and our 
struggle that they shall float over our graves. 

Henry Ward Beecher 

Reply to the Mayor of New York City 

February 20, 1861 

THERE is nothing that could ever bring me to consent — 
willingly to consent — to the destruction of this Union (in 
which not only the great city of New York, but the whole 
country, has acquired its greatness), unless it would be the thing 
for which the Union itself was made. I understand that the 
ship is made for the carrying and preservation ot the cargo; 
and so long as the ship is safe with the cargo, it shall not be 
abandoned. This Union shall never be abandoned, unless 
the possibility of its existence shall cease to exist without the 
necessity of throwing passengers and cargo overboard. 

Abraham Lincoln 


The Star Spangled Banner 

THE Star Spangled Banner! Was ever flag so beautiful, 
did ever flag so fill the souls of men ? The love of woman ; 
the sense of duty; the thirst for glory; the heart-throbbing 
that impels the humblest American to stand by his colors, 
fearless in the defense of his native soil, and holding it sweet 
to die for it— the yearning which draws him to it when exiled 
from it— its free institutions and its blessed memories, all are 
embodied and symbolized by the broad stripes and bright 
stars of the nation's emblem, all live again in the lines and 
tones of Key's anthem. Two or three began the song, millions 
join in the chorus. They are singing it in Porto Rican trenches 
and on the ramparts of Santiago, and its echoes, borne upon 
the wings of morning, come rolling back from far away Manila; 
the soldier's message to the soldier; the hero's shibboleth in 
battle; the patriot's solace in death! Even to the lazy sons 
of peace who lag at home— the pleasure-seekers whose merry- 
making turns the night to day— those stirring strains come 
as a sudden trumpet-call, and, above the sounds of revelry, 
subjugated for the moment to a stronger power, rises wave 
upon wave of melodious resonance, the idler's aimless but 
heartfelt tribute to his country and his country's flag. 

Henry Watterson 

WHEN my eyes shall be turned to behold for the last time 
the sun in heaven, may I not see him shining on 
the broken and dishonored fragments of a once glorious Union ; 
on states dissevered, discordant, belligerent; on a land rent 
with civil feuds, or drenched, it may be, in fraternal blood! 
Let their last feeble and lingering glance rather behold the 
gorgeous ensign of the Republic, now known and honored 
Throughout the earth, still full high advanced, its arms and 
trophies streaming in their original luster, not a stripe erased 
or polluted, nor a single star obscured, bearing for its motto 
no such miserable interrogatory as "What is all this worth ? 
nor those other words of delusion and folly, "Liberty first and 
Union afterwards"; but everywhere, spread over all in charac- 
ters of living light, blazing on all its ample folds, as they float 
over the sea and over the land, and in every wind under the 
whole heavens, that other sentiment, dear to every true Ameri- 
can heart— Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and 
inseparable! ' Daniel Webster 


Our Flag 

THERE is the national flag! He must be cold, indeed, 
who can look upon its folds, rippling in the breeze, with- 
out pride of country. If he be in a foreign land the flag is 
companionship and country itself, with all its endearments. 
Who, as he sees it, can think of a state merely ? Whose eye, 
once fastened on its radiant trophies, can fail to recognize 
the image of the whole nation .? It has been called a "floating 
piece of poetry"; and yet I know not if it has any intrinsic 
beauty beyond other ensigns. Its highest beauty is in what 
it symbolizes. It is because it represents all, that all gaze at 
it with delight and reverence. It is a piece of bunting lifted 
in the air; but it speaks sublimely, and every part has a voice. 
Its stripes, of alternate red and white, proclaim the original 
union of thirteen states to maintain the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence. Its stars, white on a field of blue, proclaim that 
union of states constituting our national constellation, which 
receives a new star with every new state. The two, together, 
signify union, past and present. The very colors have a lan- 
guage, which was ofiicially recognized by our fathers. White 
is for purity, red for valor, blue for justice ; and all together — 
bunting, stripes, stars, and colors blazing in the sky — make 
the flag of our country, to be cherished by all of our hearts, 
to be upheld by all of our hands. Charles Sumner 


O starry flag of Union, hail! 

Now wave thy silken folds on high. 
The gentle breeze that stirs each sail 

Proclaims a broad dear freedom nigh. 

Who dares haul down from mast or tow'r, 

Yon emblem of Columbia's pride, 
His life holds light in that dread hour, 

Since brave men for that flag have died. 

We raise no hand for strife or war, 

We plead for peace for ev'ry land; 
But love we always each bright star, 

Each color, stripe, and rain-bow strand. 

Blue field, thy stars for ev'rv state; 

Thy crimson stripes, thx peerless ivlitte. 
Wave now o'er us, ivhtle our chorus 

Swells our watchword, God and Right I 

Charles W. Johnson 


^^^^^■■m III! ■ lllllll II '■ 


Tlie einifif'd soni'vai-i-ompoi-"! '«i3<Ttli- 

*eli UjiUnn.rc, ill » lljg uf Ii>1';k forlV» iJ-i 
post of (ji-'iiii-f reie«s«i ffom tlie biii;';i rt'- i 
a friend of hi, who had bpen csjiUireii s'- M-n i- 
bormigh. — He WenU< far as llie mnuih of Cie i 
?nlmenl, anJ wm not permitteil to return let! 
the iiiiendeii auac-k oa hallimore should hr 
dSclosed He was therefore brought op ihe 
Bay to the mouiln of the I'lHiijiiico, wh. re lb ■ 
flag vessel w«» kept under (be guns of a fri- 
gate, and he was compelled to witiices the 
bombardment o1 Fort M 'Henry, which the 
AUmiral had boasted that he would cai^ry in 
i (ev hours, and that the city must fall He 
watched the Hag at the fort through Ihe whnlo 
day with an anxiety that can be better felt 
than described, until the nighi prevented him 
from seeing it. In the ni»,hl lie wuiched the 
Bomb Shells, and at earl) dawn hi" eye w js 
k^ain greeted by the prcudly wiving Hag of 
hi» country. 

O! My can yuu see by the dawn's early light. 
What «o proiiJiy we hiiled at the (wiiighl's 

last gleaming, 
Whose broad stripcjand bright «lars through 

lUe perilous hf^bt. 
O'er 'he rampirts we watch'dj were JOgal- 

lant'y streaming!' 
And the lluf keu' red glare, the Bombs burst- 
ing in air, 
Oave proof throagh th< night, that our I'lag 

was fttiU tliere j 
O '. «ay does that «tar-<pangl*d Banner yet 

O'er Uk Land of tbe free, and the borne cf 

th« brave? 

On the tbore dimly leen throagh the mitts of 
the deep, 

' IVbere the foe's hanghty'host in dread >i- 
lence repofle.,, 

Wliat is that which the breeae, o'er the tow- 
ering steep, 
As it fitfullj blows, half conceals, half dis- 
closes ? 

Now it catches the gleam of the morning's 
first beam. 

In full glory reflected now .bines in the stimin, 
'"^18 the uar spangled bejraer, O! long may 

it wa»e. 
O'er the land of the frais aad the home of 
the brare. " ,_ - 

And it'lierc is that hend who w TaooUngly 
Ybat the havoc of war aad tbe batila't eoa- 
^home a nd • coBntty, should leare as no more' 
1%eir blood hat w4thed oat their foul foot^ 
slept pulhilion. 
Ifo refuge could save the' hireling and slare, 
From the terror of flight or tbe gioom of the 
And the star-ipangled banner in iriamph 

doUi wave. 
O'er the Land of the Free, atjd the Home 
bf iho Bmvc. . :, 

<9 '■ 'hw* be it e'er when freemen eball ttand* . 
ii |Sel«feB« their lor^l' haraes, Wid Ihe w»f'» 
V- de*DSati»h, 

tifest with vim'ry mat peace, may the Heav'n 

resetted land. 

Praise the Power Chat hath made nod pre- 

terv'd iu a Didon f ' ' -' ' . '. 

.4tt^'^ cnn(i*er we mCnt, w'aew oil M.S9C il i» 

<r/d this 6e otlr motto— 'In God it oorTmrt' 
" And the star-tpaogled Bacoer in triumph 
"" "^v, '^ eh«ll wave, 

O'er the Land of the Free, and the Hotae 

■■=..•, <iJF file Save- ' ^--. 

, Sepf 2/ 
*;rday fo / 

sitice learn M i. 
not being mcniioneu 
■niiiisl. the glory yoor-^ „ , 
,.;r3 I'i ihe marine ^jj^rps » ^ 
,.L'K,;i: I iri*y /■'y, ur,...-r the ey 
.-If-a', alT.1 fume i-iii do yii'j jajtl-:, 
■I. ?;jv w'shes foryo'ir speedy J 
..'. .0, t inv respects to lieuts. R .' 
. ' ''i, Lur.' am) Kir.oUe, who «.^ 
on (hat inemor.iV'i^ day. 

I am, sir, with respect yoor ol 
vjnt, JUSJIUABAlv 

Lapt. A .^EVlKR, 

Marine Corps, t^'ashington. 

tVASiirs'iro.f, I 
H.iih Hoijs 5 of Cnnnress yesifr , 
a i|iiormii. and appointed a joint cocnr/ 
10 inform the I'resi-JeiU that they We/ 
n,ed and ready to receive any commun.' 
be might have to make. It is probablf^ 
fore that the ftlessaLie will be deliverer, 


\Vc had yesterday no addition*,' 
lion of an authentic cliuricterftoi/ 
borhood of Flaitsburg, which is n 
tre of the most interesting ope / 

The glorious victory obiainy'' 
force on Lake Cliampiatn is t 
of that achieved just a year/ 
Crie, and was perhaps cquy' 
its consequences. Tbe bat^ 
tha capture of one British ar 
the traniiuility of our western ». 
battle of Champlaifl preceded ,. 
complished the defeat of another - 
Eencd a formidable invasion of oti 
froniier, by an incursion into the | 
lous state in the Union. I'hc recti 
has every where diffused heart-fcl] 
been received with welcome salut I 
long as history prolongs to posterij 
collection of other tiroes, llie oameri 
and iMaciionouch will beremeinot 
tb«r and the tenth and eleventh of q 
be recorded as fortunate days m tii>\ 
of the Republic II. , 



This being the day astigned by / 
mation of the President tor the 
Coagres,s, the Members assero''' 
partments prepared lor their 8 
at the Uiuu hour. Tl^ese to 
from Iwia^ as commodioos v 
occupied by the two housr 
more comfortable than cr 
pecCed from the exterior 
building in which hey are 
been vi-ry neatlj and expedi 
onder ibe diction of the Sa^ 
the city. 

/iV &ENAT&. \ 

The Vice PfMidcnt not having »i\ 
Hon^ Jobn Gaiiianl, of ^outb Csni 
Bitted the Chair as President pro te\ 
of the Senat;. / 

The roll having been called, it/ 
that the following members were p; 

from Stxi- llamyshxrt — .Mr. 

Slassitchuiiui — Mr. Vamqni 

Rhode Island — Vlt. HowetL 

fermow— Mr. Ri>binton. 

tenns'^tvania^^yitmi. L 

Oelarcarf — Mr. Horsey. 

yir^it-ia — Messrs. Brent 

A'mtA Carolina — Mr. Tui 

SoxM^CaTulina—Ms, Qm 
,. Gtorgia — Mr. Tuit. W 

A'en'aiiy— Mr. Bl<!dsp»,,^ 

TtnMtste — MeasT^-*" 


hop' ,^' 

The St.-\r Sp.-\n'gled Banner 
(Reproduced from Baltimore American of September 21, 1814) 



THE Star Spangled Banner has not been formally 
adopted as a national anthem, because it relates to a 
special war incident and does not meet all the require- 
ments of a national song. It is, however, generally acclaimed 
as one of the noblest and most inspiring of American lyrics 
and, under army and navy regulations, is played at morning 
and evening "colors." It is more frequently recited and sung 
on patriotic occasions and in the schools than any American 
song, with the exception, perhaps, of America. The circum- 
stances under which it was written give it peculiar interest. 
Its author was Francis Scott Key, a lawyer who practised in 
Maryland and Washington. He was born in Frederick county, 
Maryland, August i, 1779, and died in Baltimore, Jan 
uary 11, 1843. ^ large national flag floats over 
grave in Mount Olivet cemetery in Frederick an 
is never lowered, except to be replaced by a new 
one. A volume of his poems was published 
in 1856, but the Star Spangled Ban 
alone makes his name immortal. Mr 
Key was in custody on the British frigate 
Surprise during the attackon Fort McHenry, 
September 13, 1814, and the poem vividly 
describes what he then witnessed. From the 
vessel he anxiously watched the flag on the 
fort during the day and through the night, by 
"the rockets' red glare," and to his joy saw in 
the morning the "broad stripes and bright 
stars" still "gallantly streaming" and the 
British beating a retreat. He began to write 
on the ship and upon his release completed 
the stanzas at a hotel in Baltimore. A fac- 
simile of the poem as it was originally pub- 
lished on September 21, 18 14 in the Baltimore 
American appears on the opposite page. 
The flag that floated over Fort McHenry 
is now preserved in the National Museum 
at Washington. 

FQR.t; ^ 



Bronze Memorial Tablet 

Erected by the United States Government 

at Fort McHenrj', June 1909 



When Freedom from her mountain height 
Unfurled her standard to the air, 

She tore the azure robe of night, 
And set the stars of glory there. 

She mingled with its gorgeous dyes 

The milky baldric of the skies, 

And striped its pure celestial white 

With streakings of the morning light; 

Then from his mansion in the sun 

She called her eagle bearer down, 

And gave into his mighty hand 

The symbol of her chosen land. 

Majestic monarch of the cloud! 

Who rear'st aloft thy regal form 
To hear the tempest trumpings loud. 
And see the lightning lances driven, 

When strive the warriors of the storm, 
And rolls the thunder-drum of heaven! 
Child of the Sun! to thee 'tis given 

To guard the banner of the free. 
To hover in the sulphur smoke, 
To ward away the battle stroke. 
And bid its blendings shine afar. 
Like rainbows on the cloud of war, 

The harbinger of victory. 

Flag of the brave! thy folds shall fly, 
The sign of hope and triumph high; 
When speaks the signal trumpet tone. 
And the long line comes gleaming on, 
Ere yet the life-blood warm and wet. 
Has dimmed the glistening bayonet. 
Each soldier's eye shall brightly turn 
To where thy sky-born glories burn; 
And, as his springing steps advance. 
Catch war and vengeance from the glance. 
And when the cannons' mouthings loud 
Heave in wild wreaths the battle shroud. 
And gory sabers rise and fall 
Like shoots of flame on midnight's pall. 
Then shall thy meteor glances glow. 

And cowering: foes shall sink beneath 
Each gallant arm that strikes below 

That lovely messenger of death! 


Flag of the seas! on ocean wave 
Thy stars shall glitter o'er the brave; 
When death, careering on the gale, 
Sweeps darkly round the bellied sail, 
And frighted waves rush wildly back 
Before the broadsides reeling rack, 
Each dying wanderer at sea 
Shall look at once to Heaven and thee. 
And smile to see thy splendors fly 
In triumph o'er his closing eye. 

Flag of the free heart's hope and home 

By angels' hands to valor given; 
Thy stars have lit the welkin dome, 

And all thy hues are born in Heaven. 
Forever float that standard sheet! 

Where breathes the foe but falls before us, 
With Freedom's soil beneath our feet. 

And Freedom's banner streaming o'er us. 

Joseph Rodman Drake, the author of 
The American Flag was born in New 
York city on August 7, 1795. He was a 
poet from boyhood, his earliest poem, 
The Mocking Bird, being written when he 
was a mere child. In 18 19, together with 
Fitz Greene Halleck, he began contribut- 
ing verses to the New Tork Evening Post 
under the title of The Croakers. The 
American Flag first appeared in this series 
in the issue of May 29, 1819. The last 
four lines of the poem were written by 
Halleck, at Drake's request, because he 
was not satisfied with his own concluding 
lines. Culprit Fay, a widely known poem, 
has its scene in the highlands of the Hudson 
river. Drake died on September 21, 1820, 
and was buried at Hunt's Point, Westchester 
county, N. Y. His death prompted his 
friend Halleck to write the familiar lines : 
Green be the turf above thee, 

Friend of my better days ! 
None knew thee but to love thee, 

Nor named thee but to praise. 


'•C-* c c-cc^ 

Reproduced from Preble's History of the Flag 



THE REV. FRANCIS SMITH D.D., the author of 
America, was born in Boston on October 21, 1808. He 
died at Newton Centre, Massachusetts, November 16, 
1895. He graduated at Harvard College with the famous class 
of 1829, ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ subject of Holmes's familiar lines: 
"And there's a nice youngster of excellent pith; 
Fate tried to conceal him by naming him Smith." 

He was an editor, preacher and poet. He wrote more 
than 100 hymns. He is best known, of course, by the national 
hymn America. The circumstances under which it was writ- 
ten will be shown best in Dr Smith's own words in a letter 
written in 1872, to Captain Preble of the United States navy. 

"The origin of my hymn, 'My Country 'tis of Thee,' is 
briefly told. In the year 1831, Mr William C. Woodbridge 
returned from Europe, bringing a quantity of German music- 
books, which he passed over to Lowell Mason. Mr Mason, 
with whom I was on terms of friendship, one day turned them 
over to me, knowing that I was in the habit of reading German 
works, saying, 'Here, I can't read these, but they contain 
good music, which I shoidd be glad to use. Turn over the 
leaves, and, it you find anything particularly good, give me a 
translation or imitation of it, or write a wholly original song — 
anything, so I can use it.' 

"Accordingly, one leisure afternoon, I was looking over 
the books, and fell in with the tune of 'God Save the King,' and 
at once took up my pen and wrote the piece in 
question. It was struck out at a sitting, without the 
slightest idea that it would ever attain the popular- 
ity it has since enjoyed. I think it was written in 
the town of Andover, Mass., in February, 1832. 
The first time it was sung publicly was at a 
children's celebration of American independence, 
at the Park Street Church, Boston, I think, July 
4, 1832. If I had anticipated the future of it, 
doubtless I would have taken more pains with 
it. Such as it is, I am glad to have contributed 
this mite to the cause of American freedom." 




Hail Columbia — happy land, 
Hail ye heroes — heaven-born band, 
Who fought and bled in Freedom's cause, 
Who fought and bled in Freedom's cause, 
And when the storm of war was done, 
Enjoyed the peace your valor won — 
Let Independence be our boast. 
Ever mindful what it cost; 
Ever grateful for the prize. 
Let its altars reach the skies. 
Firm, united, let us be. 
Rallying round our Liberty, 
As a band of brothers joined. 
Peace and safety we shall find. 

Immortal Patriots, rise once more. 
Defend your rights, defend your shores; 
Let no rude foe with impious hand, 
Let no rude foe with impious hand. 
Invade the shrine, where sacred lies. 
Of toil and blood, the well-earned prize. 
While offering Peace, sincere and just, 
In Heaven we place a manly trust. 
That Truth and Justice will prevail, 
And every scheme of bondage fail. 
Firm, united, let us be. 
Rallying round our Liberty, 
As a band of brothers joined. 
Peace and safety we shall find. 

Sound, sound the trump of fame. 
Let Washington's great name 
Ring through the world with loud applause. 
Ring through the world with loud applause, 
Let every clime to Freedom dear. 
Listen with a joyful ear; 
With equal skill, with godlike power, 
He governs in the fearful hour 
Of horrid war; or guides with ease 
The happier times of honest peace. 
Firm, united, let us be, 
Rallying round our Libertv, 
As a band of brothers joined. 
Peace and safety we shall find. 


Behold the chief, who now commands, 
Once more to serve his country stands. 
The rock on which the storm will beat, 
The rock on which the storm will beat. 
But arm'd in virtue, firm and true. 
His hopes are fixed on Heaven and you. 
When hope was sinking in dismay. 
And clouds obscured Columbia's day. 
His steady mind, from changes free, 
Resolved on Death or Liberty. 
Firm, united, let us be. 
Rallying round our Liberty, 
As a band of brothers joined. 
Peace and safety we shall find. 

Joseph Hopkinson, the author of Hail 
Columbia was born at Philadelphia, Pa., on 
November 12, 1770. Francis Hopkinson, 
his father, was one of the signers of the 
Declaration of Independence. He was a 
lawyer, representative to Congress, judge in 
a United States District Court, vice-presi- 
dent of the American Philosophical Society, 
president of the Philadelphia Academy of 
Fine Arts, and a writer on legal, educa- 
tional and ethical subjects. He is best 
known, however, as the author of our 
famous national song, which was written 
in the summer of 1798, when the American 
people were taking sides in the contest 
between England and France. The object 
of the poem was "to get up an American 
spirit which should be independent of, and 
above, the interests, passion, and policy of 
both belligerents, and look and feel exclu- 
sively for our honor and rights." Judge 
Hopkinson died at Philadelphia on January 
15, 1842. 


C(rvu^4iAiyCC mt f ^*^ (^ Chi C^ce^^^iy 

'r^H.1'1^ ^v /iAmt^^Zl ifH4y ^"u^ nM^ ^la^C' c/u^w, 

Cui.^ ^iXC ^Aru^ it^ 'VCoU' 'to' ffU^ (rU^M^^ 

///a^ Pttc i^tt-cJUfCs IAjC^ /C<2^^ urtrpu '^^LCt/ti' unTruJi 

ftirV -tHc' jZoAy c^ ~C7tui- (-Cut^ C"iy(ru> ciut^ny . 

iJt Cix TnZ' <f£Ayiru(u^ u^t^uiXe^ 'f^t^ 'e/v Je^ eA' 

if^ CiA^i^;^ ct^i^i^ /t<un. /-cv &veA^, 

Reproduced from Picbie s History of the Flag 



Your Flag and my Flag! 

And how it flies to-day 
In your land and my land 

And half a world away! 
Rose-red and blood-red 

The stripes forever gleam; 
Snow-white and soul-white — 

The good forefather's dream; 
Sky-blue and true blue, with stars to gleam aright — 
The gloried guidon of the day; a shelter through the night. 

Your Flag and my Flag! 

And, oh, how much it holds — 
Your land and my land — 

Secure within its folds! 
Your heart and my heart 

Beat quicker at the sight; 
Sun-kissed and wind-tossed, 

Red and blue and white. 
The one Flag — the great Flag — the Flag for me and you — 
Glorified all else beside — the red and white and blue! 

Your Flag and my Flag! 

To every star and stripe 
The drums beat as hearts beat 

And fifers shrilly pipe!' 
Your Flag and my Flag — 

A blessing in the sky; 
Your hope and my hope — 
It never hid a lie! 
Home land and far land and half the world around, 
Old Glory hears our glad salute and ripples to the sound! 

Wilbur D. Nesbit 


Hats off ! 
Along the street there comes 
A blare of bugles, a ruffle of drums, 
A flash of color beneath the sky: 

Hats off ! 
The flag is passing by ! 

Blue and crimson and white it shines 
Over the steel-tipped, ordered lines. 

Hats off ! 
The colors before us fly; 
But more than the flag is passing by. 

Sea-fights and land-fights, grim and great, 
Fought to make and to save the state : 
Weary marches and sinking ships; 
Cheers of victory on dying lips; 

Days of plenty and years of peace; 
March of a strong land's swift increase. 
Equal justice, right, and law, 
Stately honor and reverend awe. 

Sign of a nation, great and strong 
To ward her people from foreign wrong. 
Pride and glory and honor, — all 
Live in the colors to stand or fall. 

Hats off! 
Along the street there comes 
A blare of bugles, a ruffle of drums; 
And loyal hearts are beating high : 

Hats off ! 
The flag is passing by ! 

Henry Holcomb Bennett 



Washed in the blood of the brave and the blooming, 

Snatched from the altars of insolent foes, 
Burning with star-fires, but never consuming, 

Flash its broad ribbons of lily and rose. 

Vainly the prophets of Baal would rend it. 

Vainly his worshipers pray for its fall; 
Thousands have died for it, millions defend it, 

Emblem of justice and mercy to all: 

Justice that reddens the sky with her terrors, 
Mercy that comes with her white-handed train. 

Soothing all passions, redeeming all errors. 
Sheathing the sabre and breaking the chain. 

Borne on the deluge of old usurpations. 

Drifted our Ark o'er the desolate seas. 
Bearing the rainbow of hope to the nations, 

Torn from the storm-cloud and flung to the breeze! 

God bless the Flag and its loyal defenders, 

While its broad folds o'er the battle-field wave. 

Till the dim star-wreath rekindle its splendors. 
Washed from its stains in the blood of the brave! 

Oliver Wendell Holmes 

Old Glory! say, who. 
By the ships and the crew. 

And the long, blended ranks of the Gray and the Blue, — 
Who gave you, Old Glory, the name that you bear 
With such pride everywhere. 
As you cast yourself free to the rapturous air. 
And leap out full length, as we're wanting you to ? — 
Who gave you that name, with the ring of the same, 
And the honor and fame so becoming to you ? 
Your stripes stroked in ripples of white and of red. 
With your stars at their glittering best overhead — 
By day or by night 
Their delightfulest light 

Laughing down from their little square heaven of blue! 
Who gave you the name of Old Glory — say, who — 

Who gave you the name of Old Glory ? 

The old banner lifted, and faltering then 

In vague lisps and whispers fell silent again. 


Old Glory, — speak out! We are asking about 

How you happened to "favor" a name, so to say, 

That sounds so familiar and careless and gay, 

As we cheer it, and shout in our wild, breezy way — 

We — the crowd, every man of us, calling you that — 

fVe, Tom, Dick, and Harry, each swinging his hat 

And hurrahing "Old Glory!" like you were our kin. 

When — Lord! — we all know we're as common as sin! 

And yet it just seems like you humor us all 

And waft us your thanks, as we hail you and fall 

Into line, with you over us, waving us on 

Where our glorified, sanctified betters have gone. 

And this is the reason we're wanting to know 

(And we're wanting it so! 

Where our own fathers went we are willing to go) 

Who gave you the name of Old Cilorv — O-ho! — 

Who gave you the name of Old Glory ? 

The old fag unfurled with a billowy thrill 

For an instant; then wistfully sighed and was still. 

Old Glory: the story we're wanting to hear 

Is what the plain tacts ot your christening were, — 

For your name — just to hear it, 

Repeat it, and cheer it, 's a tang to the spirit 

As salt as a tear: 

And seeing you fly, and the boys marching by. 

There's a shout in the throat and a blur in the eye, 

And an aching to live tor you always — or die. 

If, dying, we still keep you waving on high. 

And so, by our love 

For vou, floating above, 

And the scars of all wars and the sorrows thereof". 

Who gave you the name of Old Glory, and why 

Are we thrilled at the name of Old Glory? 

T hen the old banner leaped, like a sail in the blast. 
And fluttered an audible answer at last. 

And it spake, with a shake of the voice, and it said : — 
By the driven snow-white and the living blood-red 
Of my bars, and their heaven of stars overhead — 
By the symbol conjoined of them all, skyward cast, 
As I float from the steeple, or flap at the mast, 
Or droop o'er the sod where the long grasses nod, — 
My name is as old as the glory ot God. 

So I came by the name of Old Glory. 

James Whitcomb Riley 

Copyright, J&gS, hy the author 



On the bloody field of Monmouth flashed the guns of Greene and Wayne; 
Fiercely roared the tide of battle, thick the sward was heaped with slain. 
Foremost, facing death and danger, Hessian horse and grenadier, 
In the vanguard, fiercely fighting, stood an Irish cannoneer. 

Loudly roared his iron cannon, mingling ever in the strife. 

And beside him, firm and daring, stood his faithful Irish wife; 

Of her bold contempt ot danger, Greene and Lee's brigade could tell, 

Every one knew "Captain Molly," and the army loved her well. 

Surged the roar of battle round them, swiftly flew the iron hail; 
Forward dashed a thousand bayonets that lone battery to assail; 
From the foeman's foremost columns swept a furious fusilade. 
Mowing down the massed battalions in the ranks of Greene's brigade. 

Faster and taster worked the gunner, soiled with powder, blood, and dust; 
English bayonets shone before him, shot and shell around him burst; 
Still he fought with reckless daring, stood and manned her long and well, 
Till at last the gallant fellow dead beside his cannon fell. 

With a bitter cry of sorrow, and a dark and angrv frown, 
Looked that band of gallant patriots at their gunner stricken down. 
"Fall back, comrades! It is folly to strive against the foe." 
"Not so!" cried Irish Molly, "we can strike another blow!" 

Quickly leaped she to the cannon in her fallen husband's place, 
Sponged and rammed it fast and steady, fired it in the foeman's face. 
Flashed another ringing volley, roared another from the gun; 
"Boys, hurrah!" cried gallant Molly, "for the flag of Washington!" 

Greene's brigade, though shorn and shattered, slain and bleeding half their men. 
When they heard that Irish slogan, turned and charged the foe again; 
Knox and Wayne and Morgan rally, to the front they forward wheel, 
And before their rushing onset Clinton's English columns reel. 

Still the cannon's voice in anger rolled and rattled o'er the plain, 
Till there lay in swarms around it mingled heaps of Hessian slain. 
"Forward! charge them with the bayonet!" 'twas the voice of Washington; 
And there burst a fierv greeting from the Irishwoman's gun. 

Monckton falls; against his columns leap the troops of Wayne and Lee, 
And before their reeking bayonets Clinton's red battalions flee; 
Morgan's rifles, fiercely flashing, thin the foe's retreating ranks. 
And behind them, onward dashing, Ogden hovers on their flanks. 

Fast they fly, those boasting Britons, who in all their glory came, 
With their brutal Hessian hirelings to wipe out our country's name. 
Proudly floats the starry banner; Monmouth's glorious field is won; 
And, in triumph, Irish Molly stands beside her smoking gun. 

William Collins 


High above! High above, 
Floats the standard that we love, 
Starry emblem of our might. 
Proudly borne in many a fight. 
On the land and on the sea. 
Borne along to victory. 
Tyrants fear it, freemen cheer it. 

As it floats! As it floats! 
Its gay stripes lightly streaming, 
And its stars brightly gleaming 
From the sky ot its blue, 
Mark the banner ot the true. 

Let it wave! Let it wave! 
'Neath its folds no cowering slave, 
Ground to earth by tyrant power. 
Waits the dawn of happier hour; 
Under it ah men are free. 
Breathing air of liberty, 
We revere it, let us cheer it. 

Cheer its stripes! Cheer its stars! 
For its stripes breathe defiance, 
And its stars speak alliance, 
While its red and its white. 
With the blue of truth unite. 


Should a foe! Should a foe! 
In his pride his strength to show, 
On our shore presume to land, 
Firm, undaunted, we will stand. 
Shouting loud our freeman's cry. 
Our proud standard waving high. 
We will fight him, we will smite him, 

Till he fly! Till he fly! 
For stout hearts yield them never, 
And strong arms conquer ever. 
In defense of their sires, 
And their altars, and their fires. 

May it stand! May it stand! 
Guardian o'er the happy land, 
Where our sires forever broke 
Haughty despot's iron yoke. 
Flag of might and flag of right. 
Patriots hail it with delight. 
High we rear it, loud we cheer it. 

Cheer its red, blue, and white! 
For the North and South united, 
And the East and West are plighted. 
To be one evermore. 
From the center to the shore. 

P, H. McQuADE 


Fling it from mast and steeple. 

Symbol o'er land and sea 
Of the life of a happy people. 

Gallant and strong and free. 
Proudly we view its colors. 

Flag of the brave and true. 
With the clustered stars and steadfast 

The red, the white, and the 

Flag of the fearless hearted. 

Flag of the broken chain. 
Flag in a day-dawn started, 

Never to pale or wane. 
Dearly we prize its colors, 

With the heaven light breaking 
The clustered stars and the steadfast 

The red, the white, and the blue. 

Flag of the sturdy fathers. 

Flag of the loyal sons. 
Beneath its folds it gathers 

Earth's best and noblest ones. 
Boldly we wave its colors. 

Our veins are thrilled anew; 
By the steadfast bars, the clustered stars. 

The red, the white, and the blue. 

Margaret E. Sangster 



Nothing but flags — but simply flags 

Tattered and torn and hanging in rags; 

Some walk by them with careless tread, 

Nor think of the hosts of patriot dead 

That have marched beneath them in days gone by, 

With a burning cheek and a kindling eye, 

And have bathed their folds with their life's young tide. 

And, dying, blessed them, and, blessing, died. 

Nothing but flags — yet, methinks, at night 
They tell each other their tale of fright; 
And spectres come, and their twin arms twine 
'Round each standard torn, as they stand in line, 
As the word is given, they charge; they form! 
And the dim hall rings with the battle's storm! 
And once again, through smoke and strife, 
These colors lead to a nation's life. 

Nothing but flags — yet, bathed with tears, 
They tell of triumphs, ot hopes, of fears; 
Of earnest prayers for the absent men, 
Of the battlefield and the prison pen; 
Silent, thev speak; and the tear will start 
As we stand before them with throbbing heart, 
And think of those who are not forgot; 
Their flags came hither — but they came not. 

Nothing but flags — yet we hold our breath 
And gaze with awe at these types of death; 
Nothing but flags — yet the thought will come, 
The heart must pray though the lips are dumb. 
They, are sacred, pure, and we see no stain 
On those loved flags, which came home again; 
Baptized in blood of our purest, best. 
Tattered and torn, they are now at rest. 

Moses Owen 

The good ship Union's voyage is o'er, 

At anchor safe she swings. 
And loud and clear with cheer on cheer 

Her joyous welcome rings: 
Hurrah! Hurrah! it shakes the wave. 

It thunders on the shore, — 
One flag, one land, one heart, one hand, 

One Nation evermore. 

Oliver Wendell Holmes 



THE national flags hoisted at camps or forts are of the 
following three sizes: The storm and recruiting flag, 
measuring eight feet in length by four feet two inches 
in width; the post flag, measuring twenty feet in length by ten 
feet in width; the garrison flag, measuring thirty-six feet in 
length by twenty feet in width (this flag is hoisted only on 
holidays and great occasions). The union is one-third of the 
length of the flag, and extends to the lower edge of the fourth 
red stripe from the top. 

Color and Flags for the President of the United States 

Army regulations provide for the President of the 
United States a silken color six feet six inches fly and four 
feet on the pike eleven feet long. The head to consist of a 
globe two inches in diameter, surmounted by an American 
eagle alert about five and three-eighths inches high. 

A five-pointed white star in each of the four corners, one 
point upward ; in the center of the color is placed a large fifth 
star, also of five points; inside of this large star is placed a 
parallel star, separated from it by a band of white one and 
one-half inches wide. 

This inner star forms a blue field upon which is placed the 
ofiicial coat of arms of the United States. 

On the scarlet field, around the larger star, are other white 
stars, one for each state. 

There is also provided a flag of blue bunting, to be attached 
to halliards fourteen and forty one-hundredths feet fly and ten 
and twenty one-hundredths feet hoist, bearing in the center 
the ofiicial coat of arms of the United States. 

A launch flag, made of blue bunting, three and six-tenths 
feet hoist, by five and thirteen one-hundredths feet fly, made 
of blue bunting, and bearing in the center the oflicial coat of 
arms of the LInited States, is also provided. 

Color and Flags for the Secretary of War 
The army regulations provide for a color for the Secretary 
of War, made of scarlet banner silk, five feet six inches fly 


and four feet four inches on the pike, having embroidered in 
each corner a five-pointed white star, one point upward, and 
bearing in the center, embroidered in colors, the official coat 
of arms of the United States. A similar flag, of scarlet bunt- 

The Battleship New York 

ing, to be attached to halliards, measuring twelve feet fly and 
six feet eight inches hoist, is also prescribed. 

A launch flag, of scarlet bunting, bearing similar designs, 
and measuring three and six-tenths feet by five and thirteen 
one-hundredths feet, is also provided. 


Similar colors and flags, except that they shall be made of 
white banner silk and white bunting with scarlet stars, re- 
spectively, are provided for the Assistant Secretary of War. 

National Colors and Standards 

The national colors carried by regiments of infantry, the 
coast artillery corps (for h. q. of each artillery district), 
and battalions of engineers, in battle, campaign, or occasions 
of ceremony, are made ot silk and are live leet six inches fly 
and four feet four inches hoist, mounted on pikes nine feet 
long. The official designation of the organizations carrying 
the same are engraved upon a silver band placed on the pike. 

The field of the color is thirty inches long (from the pike 
casing) and extends to the lower edge of the fourth red stripe 
from the top. 

The national standards carried by cavalry and field artillery 
regiments in battle, campaign, or occasions of ceremony are 
also made of silk and are four feet fly and three feet hoist, 
mounted on lances nine feet six inches long. 

The field of the standard is twenty-two inches long from 
the lance casing and extends down to the lower edge of the 
fourth red stripe from the top. The official designation of the 
organizations carrying the same are engraved upon a silver 
band placed on the lance. 

"Service" national colors and standards made of bunting (or 
other suitable material) and of the same dimensions as above 
are also furnished for similar commands for use at drills and 
on marches, and on all service other than battles, campaigns, 
and occasions of ceremony. 

The "service" national color is also prescribed for bat- 
talions of Philippine scouts, for use on all occasions. 

Flag of the Secretary of the Navy 

The flag of the Secretary of the Navy is made in four 
sizes, size No. i being fourteen and forty one-hundredths feet 
fly and ten and twenty one-hundredths feet on the pike. It 
has a blue field with a five-pointed w^hite star in each of the 
four corners, one point upward, and a white anchor in the 
center. The flag of the Assistant Secretary of the Navy 
simply reverses the colors, having a white field with blue 
stars and a blue anchor. 



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Books of interest to school children are starred. 
Valuable books of reference for teachers are double starred. 


^'Campbell, Robert A. Our flag; or, The evolution of the 

Stars and Stripes. Chicago, Lawrence, 1890. o. p. 
Canby, George, and Balderston, Lloyd. Evolution of the 
American flag. Philadelphia, Ferris & Leach, 1909. $1. 
Champion, Mrs Sarah E. Our flag, its history and changes, 
1620-1896. 2d ed. New York, Tuttle, 1896. 75c. 
**Fallows, Samuel (ed.). Story of the x'\merican flag, with 
patriotic selections and incidents. Chicago, Educational 
Publication Company, 1905. 40c. 
**Fow, John H. True story of the American flag. Philadel- 
phia, Campbell, 1908. 50c. 
Hale, Edward Everett. Man without a country. Various 

Hamilton, Schuyler. History of the national flag of the 
United States of America. Philadelphia, Lippincott, 
1852. o. p. 
**Harrison, Peleg D. The Stars and Stripes and other Ameri- 
can flags, including their origin and history, army and 
navy regulations concerning the national standard and 
ensign, flag making, salutes, improvised, unique and 
combination flags, flag legislation, and many associations 
of American flags includino- the origin of the name "Old 
Glory," with songs and their stories. Boston, Little, 
Brown, 1906. ^3. 
*Holden, Edward S. Our country's flag and the flags of 
foreign countries. New York, Appleton, 1898. 80c. 
**Hulme, Frederick E. Flags of the world; their history, 
blazonry, and associations. New York, Warne, 1897. ^2. 
**Preble, George H. History of the flag of the United States. 
Boston, Houghton, Miflflin, 1893. $5. The standard 
history of the flag. 
*Smith, Nicholas. Our nation's flag in history and incident. 
Milwaukee, Young Churchman Company, 1903. $i- 


United States Equipment Bureau. Flags of maritime nations. 

Washington, Government Printing Office, 1899. o. p. 
Weaver, A. G. Story of our flag, colonial and national, with 

a historical sketch of the Quakeress, Betsy Ross. Ed. 2. 

Chicago, The Author, 1898. ^i. 


The American flag. Outlook, February 25, 1899. 61:479. 
Champion, Mrs Henry. American flag — the ensign of liberty. 

journal of American History, January 1907. 1:9-16; 

Connecticut Magazine, January 1907. 11 : 3-1 1. 
Dwight, Theodore W. American flag and John Paul Jones. 

Magazine of American History, October 1890. 24: 269-72. 
Ellicott, John M. What the flags tell. St Nicholas, March 

1895. 22:403-9. (Describes the international signal 

Geare, Randolph I. Historic flags. New England Magazine, 

August 1903. 34:702-10. 
Griffis, William E. Where our flag was first saluted. New 

England Magazine, July 1893. 14:576-85. 
Hamilton, Schuyler. Our national flag, the Stars and Stripes, 

its history for a century. Magazine of American History, 

July 1877. I : 401-28. 
Stars in our flag. Magazine of American History, 

February 1888. 19: 150-53. 
Hammond, Harold. Honors to the flag. St Nicholas, July 

1906. 33- 77^-7^- 

McEadden, Parmalee. Origin of our flag. St Nicholas, July 
1903. 30:805-8. 

Morgan, M. M. How "Old Glory" was named. A sketch of 
the New England sea-captain who thus christened the 
American flag. Harpers Weekly, December 18, 1909. 

Ogden, H. A. Our flag's first engagement. St Nicholas, July 

1907. 34:831-34. 

Tuffley, Edward W. Origin of the Stars and Stripes. St 

Nicholas, November 1883. 11:66-71. 
Varney, George j. Stars and Stripes, a Boston idea. New 

England Magazine, July 1902. 32:539-48. 
W^heelan, F. H. A house that was saved by the flag. St 

Nicholas, July 1908. 35: 791-93. (How the flag saved 

a house from burning in the San Francisco fire, 1906.) 


Wilcox, H. K. W. National standards and emblems. Har- 
pers Magazine, July 1873. 47:171-81. 

Zeh, Lillian E. How the flags for our battleships are made. 
Van Nordens Magazine, February 1908. 2: 123-28. 



Carrington, Henry B. Beacon lights of patriotism. New 
York, Silver, Burdett, 1894. 72c. 

Columbian selections. Philadelphia, Lippincott, 

1892. 75c. 

Eggleston, G. C. American war ballads and lyrics. 2v. 

New York, Putnam, 1889. $1.50. 
Matthews, J. Brander. Poems of American patriotism. New 

York, Scribner, 1882. 50c. 
Paget, R. L. Poems of American patriotism. Boston, Page, 

1898. ^1.25. 
Scollard, Clinton. Ballads of American bravery. New York, 

Silver, Burdett, 1900. 50c. 
Stevenson, Burton E. Poems of American history. Boston, 

Houghton, MifHin, 1908. S3. 
and Elizabeth B. Days and deeds: a book ot 

verse. New York, Baker & Taylor, 1906. Si. 
White, Richard Grant. Poetry of the Civil War. New York, 

American News Company, 1866. o. p. 

Poems in collections listed above are referred to by compiler and page only. 

Bennett, Henry H. The flag goes by. See Paget, p. 45- 

Boyle, Virginia F. The apron flag. Lee Harrison, p. 405-6. 

Bunner, Henry C. The old flag. See his Poems, p. 92-93 ; 
also abridged in Paget, p. 22. 

Butterworth, Hezekiah. Festal day has come. See Shoe- 
maker's best selections, number 20, p. 154-57. 

Flag the emigrants cheered. See Carrington, 

Columbian selections, p. 261-63. 

Song of the flag. See Carrington, Columbian 

selections, p. 260-61. 
Carleton, Will. Language of the flag. See his Poems for 

young Americans, p. 59-60. 
Cawein, Madison. Under the Stars and Stripes. See Paget, 

p. 246-47. 


The Confederate flag. See White, p. 325-26. 

Curtis, George W. American flag. See Fallows, p. 79-80. 

Dorr, Henry. Spirit of the flag. See Scribner's Magazine, 

June 1903. 33:700. 
Drake, Joseph Rodman. American flag. See Matthews, 

p. 102-5. 
Guiterman, Arthur. Call to the colors. See Stevenson, Poems 

of American history, p. 627-28; Paget, p. 297-99. 
Holmes, Oliver Wendell. Union and liberty. See his Poems 

(Camb. ed.), p. 198. 
The flower of liberty. See his Poems (Camb. ed.), 

p. 196-97. 
God save the flag. See his Poems (Camb. ed.), 

p. 194. ^ _ 

Howe, Julia Ward. The flag. See her Later lyrics, p. 

Irving, Minna. Betsy's battle flag. See Stevenson, Poems of 

American history, p. 191-92. 
Key, Francis Scott. Star spangled banner. See Eggleston, 

p. 138-40; Matthews, p. 87-89; Paget, p. 85-87. 
King, Horatio. Our beloved flag. See Magazine of American 

History, August 1890. 24: 137-38. 
Larcom, Lucy. The flag. See her Poems, p. 103 ; also Steven- 
son, Days and deeds, p. 156-57. 
Long, John D. The flag. See Harrison, Stars and Stripes, 

p. XV. 
Mapes, Victor. A story of the flag. St Nicholas, July 1892. 

19: 643-46. (Adventures of tw^o American flags in Paris.) 
Mitchell, S. Weir. Song of the flags on their return to the 

States of the Confederacy. See Stevenson, Poems of 

American history, p. 655. 
Nesbit, Wilbur D. Your flag and my flag. See Sindelar, J.C, 

Lincoln day entertainments, p. 26-27. 
One beneath Old Glory. See Paget, p. 313. 
Owen, Moses. Nothing but flags. See Campbell, p. 121-22. 
Parker, Hubbard. Old flag. See Stevenson, Days and 

deeds, p. 160-61. 
Proctor, Edna D. Columbia's banner. See her Songs of 

America, p. 6-10. 

The Stripes and the Stars. See Paget, p. 128. 

Raymond, George L. Hail the flag. See his Ballads and 

poems, p. 160-62. 


Raymond, R. W. Banner of the stars. See Paget, p. 140-41 
Reid, Thomas Buchanan. Flag ot the constellation. See 

Eggleston, p. 186-87. 
Richards, Laura E. Our colors. See George, Marian M., 

The plan book. Spring-intermediate, p. 1294. 
Riley, James Whitcomb. Name of Old Glory. See his Home 

folks, p. 4-7. 
M. W. S. The flag. See Paget, p. 37-38. 
Shaw, David T. Columbia the gem of the ocean. See Paget, 

p. 4-5. 
Smith, Dexter. Our national banner. See Stevenson, Poems 

of American history, p. 578. 
Smith, Samuel Francis. America. See his Poems of home 

and country, p. 77-78. 
Wave the flag on high. See his Poems of home 

and country, p. 156. 
Stanton, Frank L. Old flag forever. See Paget, p. 36. 
Street, Alfred B. Return of the flags of the volunteer regi- 
ments to their states. See Campbell, p. 125-26. 
Stryker, M. W. Every star a story. See Smith, N., p. 186-87. 
Thompson, Maurice. An incident of the war. See Scollard, 

p. 99-101. 
Trowbridge, John T. The color-bearer. See his Poetical 

works, p. 38-39. 
Wells, Mary. For the flag. St Nicholas, July 1908. 

Whittier, John Greenleaf. Barbara Frietchie. See his 

Poetical works, various editions. 
Wilder, John N. Stand by the flag. See Bellamy, B. W. & 

Goodwin, M. W., Open sesame, 2:4-5. 
Woodman, Horatio. The flag. See White, p. 5-6. 




HE original drawings for the cover 
design, for the lining pages and for 
the illustrations on pages lo, 12, 13, 17, 
19, 23 and 60 in this book were made 
by Mr Royal Bailey Farnum of the State 
Education Department. 

npHE typography, engravings, presswork 
and Isinding were executed jointly by 
The Matthews-Northrup Works, of Buf- 
falo, and the J. B. Lyon Company, of